IO-Link Changeover: ID Without RFID – Hub ID

When looking at flexible manufacturing, what first comes to mind are the challenges of handling product changeovers. It is more and more common for manufacturers to produce multiple products on the same production line, as well as to perform multiple operations in the same space.

Accomplishing this and making these machines more flexible requires changing machine parts to allow for different stages in the production cycle. These interchangeable parts are all throughout a plant: die changes, tooling changes, fixture changes, end-of-arm tooling, and more.

When swapping out these interchangeable parts it is crucial you can identify what tooling is in place and ensure that it is correct.

ID without RFID

When it comes to identifying assets in manufacturing today, typically the first option companies consider is Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID). Understandably so, as this is a great solution, especially when tooling does not need an electrical connection. It also allows additional information beyond just identification to be read and written on the tag on the asset.

It is more and more common in changeover applications for tooling, fixtures, dies, or end-of-arm tooling to require some sort of electrical connection for power, communication, I/O, etc. If this is the case, using RFID may be redundant, depending on the overall application. Let’s consider identifying these changeable parts without incurring additional costs such as RFID or barcode readers.

Hub ID with IO-Link

In changeover applications that use IO-Link, the most common devices used on the physical tooling are IO-Link hubs. IO-Link system architectures are very customizable, allowing great flexibility to different varieties of tooling when changeover is needed. Using a single IO-Link port on an IO-Link master block, a standard prox cable, and hub(s), there is the capability of up to: 

    • 30 Digital Inputs/Outputs or
    • 14 Digital Inputs/Outputs and Valve Manifold Control or
    • 8 Digital Inputs/Outputs and 4 Analog Voltage/Current Signals or
    • 8 Analog Input Signals (Voltage/Current, Pt Sensor, and Thermocouple)

When using a setup like this, an IO-Link 1.1 hub (or any IO-Link 1.1 device) can store unique identification data. This is done via the Serial Number Parameter and/or Application Specific Tag Parameter. They act as a 16- or 32-byte memory location for customizable alphanumeric information. This allows for tooling to have any name stored within that memory location. For example, Fixture 44, Die 12, Tool 78, EOAT 123, etc. Once there is a connection, the controller can request the identification data from the tool to ensure it is using the correct tool for the upcoming process.

By using IO-Link, there are a plethora of options for changeover tooling design, regardless of various I/O requirements. Also, you can identify your tooling without adding RFID or any other redundant hardware. Even so, in the growing world of Industry 4.0 and the Industrial Internet of Things, is this enough information to be getting from your tooling?

In addition to the diagnostics and parameter setting benefits of IO-Link, there are now hub options with condition monitoring capabilities. These allow for even more information from your tooling and fixtures like:

    • Vibration detection
    • Internal temperature monitoring
    • Voltage and current monitoring
    • Operating hours counter

Flexible manufacturing is no doubt a challenge and there are many more things to consider for die, tooling and fixture changes, and end-of-arm tooling outside of just ID. Thankfully, there are many solutions within the IO-Link toolbox.

For your next changeover, I recommend checking out Non-Contact Inductive Couplers Provide Wiring Advantages, Added Flexibility and Cost Savings Over Industrial Multi-Pin Connectors for a great solution for non-contact connectivity that can work directly with Hub ID.

Inductive Sensors and Their Unlimited Uses in Automation

Inductive sensors (also known as proximity sensors or proxes) are the most commonly used sensors in mechanical engineering and industrial automation. When they were invented in the 1960s, they marked a milestone in the development of control systems. In a nutshell, they generate an electromagnetic field that reacts to metal targets that approach the sensor head. They even work in harsh environments and can solve versatile applications.

There are hardly any industrial machines that work without inductive sensors. So, what can be solved with one, two, three, or more of them?

What can you do with one inductive sensor?

Inductive sensors are often used to detect an end position. This could be in a machine for end-of-travel detection, but also in a hydraulic cylinder or a linear direct drive as an end-of-stroke sensor. In machine control, they detect many positions and trigger other events. Another application is speed monitoring with a tooth wheel.

What can you do with two inductive sensors?

By just adding one more sensor you can get the direction of rotational motion and take the place of a more expensive encoder. In a case where you have a start and end position, this can also be solved with a second inductive sensor.

What can you do with three inductive sensors?

In case of the tooth wheel application, the third sensor can provide a reference signal and the solution turns into a multiturn rotary encoder.

What can I do with four inductive sensors and more?

For multi-point positioning, it may make sense to switch to a measurement solution, which can also be inductive. Beyond that, an array of inductive sensors can solve identification applications: In an array of 2 by 2 sensors, there are already 16 different unique combinations of holes in a hole plate. In an array of 3 by 3, it would be 512 combinations.

Know Your RFID Frequency Basics

In 2008 I purchased my first toll road RFID transponder, letting me drive through and pay my toll without stopping at a booth. This was my first real-life exposure to RFID, and it was magical. Back then, all I knew was that RFID stood for “radio frequency identification” and that it exchanged data between a transmitter and receiver using radio waves. That’s enough for a highway driver, but you’ll need more information to use RFID in an industrial automation setting. So here are some basics on what makes up an RFID system and the uses of different radio frequencies.

At a minimum, an RFID system comprises a tag, an antenna, and a processor. Tags, also known as data carriers, can be active or passive. Active tags have a built-in power source, and passive tags are powered by the electromagnetic field emitted by the antenna and are dormant otherwise. Active tags have a much longer range than passive tags. But passive tags are most commonly used in industrial RFID applications due to lower component costs and no maintenance requirements.

Low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), ultra-high frequency (UHF)

The next big topic is the different frequency ranges used by RFID: low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and ultra-high frequency (UHF). What do they mean? LF systems operate at a frequency range of 125…135 kHz, HF systems operate at 13.56 MHz, and UHF systems operate at a frequency range of 840…960 MHz. This tells you that the systems are not compatible with each other and that you must choose the tag, antenna, and processor unit from a single system for it to work properly. This also means that the LF, HF, and UHF systems will not interfere with each other, so you can install different types of RFID systems in a plant without running a risk of interference or crosstalk issues between them or any other radio communications technology.

 

Choosing the correct system frequency?

How do you choose the correct system frequency? The main difference between LF/HF systems and UHF systems is the coupling between the tags and the antenna/processor. LF and HF RFID systems use inductive coupling, where an inductive coil on the antenna head is energized to generate an inductive field. When a tag is present in that inductive field, it will be energized and begin communications back and forth. Using the specifications of the tag and the antenna/processor, it is easy to determine the read/write range or the air gap between the tag and the antenna head.

The downside of using LF/HF RFID technology based on inductive coupling is that the read/write range is relatively short, and it’s dependent on the physical size of the coils in the antenna head and the tag. The bigger the antenna and tag combination, the greater the read/write distance or the air gap between the antenna and the tag. The best LF and HF RFID uses are in close-range part tracking and production control where you need to read/write data to a single tag at a time.

UHF RFID systems use electromagnetic wave coupling to transmit power and data over radio waves between the antenna and the tag. The Federal Communications Commission strictly regulates the power level and frequency range of the radio waves, and there are different frequency range specifications depending on the country or region where the UHF RFID system is being used. In the United States, the frequency is limited to a range between 902 and 928MHz. Europe, China, and Japan have different operating range specifications based on their regulations, so you must select the correct frequency range based on the system’s location.

Using radio waves enables UHF RFID systems to achieve a much greater read/write range than inductive coupling-based RFID systems. UHF RFID read/write distance range varies based on transmission power, environmental interference, and the size of the UHF RFID tag, but can be as large as 6 meters or 20 feet. Environmental interferences such as metal structures or liquids, including human bodies, can deflect or absorb radio waves and significantly impact the performance and reliability of a UHF RFID system. UHF RFID systems are great at detecting multiple tags at greater distances, making them well suited for traceability and intralogistics applications. They are not well suited for single tag detection applications, especially if surrounded by metal structures.

Because of the impact an environment has on UHF signals, it is advisable to conduct a full feasibility study by the vendor of the UHF RFID system before the system solution is purchased to ensure that the system will meet the application requirements. This includes bringing in the equipment needed, such as tags, antennas, processors, and mounting brackets to the point of use to ensure reliable transmission of data between the tag and the antenna and testing the system performance in normal working conditions. Performing a feasibility study reduces the risk of the system not meeting the customer’s expectations or application requirements.

Selecting an industrial RFID system

There are other factors to consider when selecting an industrial RFID system, but this summary is a good place to start:

    • Most industrial RFID applications use passive RFID tags due to their lower component costs and no battery replacement needs.
    • For applications requiring short distance and single tag detection, LF or HF RFID systems are recommended.
    • For applications where long-distance and multi-tag detection is needed, UHF RFID systems are recommended.
    • If you are considering UHF, a feasibility study is highly recommended to ensure that the UHF RFID system will perform as intended and meet your requirements.

Click here to browse our library of Automation Insights blogs related to RFID.

Manufacturing Insights: Top Blogs From 2021

While last year was filled with challenges and unexpected changes for many industries, including manufacturing, it was not without positive achievements and insights. As we look forward to 2022, let’s not forget some topics that shaped 2021, including our five most-read blogs.

1. 5 Manufacturing Trends to Consider as You Plan for 2022

 

 

 

 

It’s that time of year again where we all start to forget the current year (maybe that’s OK) and start thinking of plans for the next – strategy and budget season! 2022 is only a few weeks away! I thought I’d share 5 insights I’ve had about 2022 that you might benefit from as you start planning for next year.

READ MORE>>

2. The Pros and Cons of Flush, Non-Flush and Semi-Flush Mounting


Inductive proximity sensors have been around for decades and have proven to be a groundbreaking invention for the world of automation. This type of technology detects the presence or absence of ferrous objects using electromagnetic fields. Manufacturers typically select which inductive sensor to use in their application based on their form factor and switching distance. Although, another important factor to consider is how the sensor will be mounted.

READ MORE>>

3. IO-Link Wireless – IO-Link with Even Greater Flexibility



In a previous blog entry, I discussed IO-Link SPE (Single-Pair Ethernet). SPE, in my opinion, has two great strengths compared to standard IO-Link: cable length and speed. With cable lengths of up to 100 meters and speed of 10 Mbps, compared to 20 meters and max baud rate of 230.4 Kbps, what could be out of reach?

READ MORE>>

4. How Condition Monitoring has Evolved and Its Role in IIoT

In recent years, as IIoT and Industry 4.0 have become part of our everyday vocabulary, we’ve also started hearing more about condition monitoring, predictive maintenance (PdM) and predictive analytics. Sometimes, we use these terms interchangeably as well. Strictly speaking, condition monitoring is a root that enables both predictive maintenance and predictive analytics. In today’s blog we will brush up a little on condition monitoring and explore its lineage.

READ MORE>>

5. Lithium Ion Battery Manufacturing – RFID is on a Roll



With more and more consumers setting their sights on ‘Drive Electric,’ manufacturers must prepare themselves for alternative solutions to combustion engines. This change will no doubt require an alternative automation strategy for our electric futures.

READ MORE>>

Honorable Mention: Top 5 Insights From 2020

And, finally, for the sake of comparison, we can’t help but honorably mention last year’s look-back blog. The top five insights from 2020 include buying a machine vision system; data provided by IO-Link; changes in electrostatic sensing field by capacitive sensors; reducing the number of ethernet nodes on your network using IO-Link; and adding a higher level of visibility to older automation machines.

Read more>>

We appreciate your dedication to Automation Insights in 2021 and look forward to growth and innovation in 2022!

UHF RFID Versus UHF RTLS

Many companies new to UHF (Ultra High Frequency) RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) confuse it with UHF RTLS (Real Time Location Systems). While both indeed do use UHF RFID, they differ substantially in what they can actually do for you in your business.

Many companies new to UHF (Ultra High Frequency) RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) confuse it with UHF RTLS (Real Time Location Systems). While both indeed do use UHF RFID, they differ substantially in what they can actually do for you in your business.
UHF RFID

Standard UHF RFID systems can see multiple tags on equipment and products up to several meters away, if set up properly. With emphasis on “set up properly.” While UHF RFID works quite well, its unique characteristics require testing in the environment where it will be used to ensure success.

UHF RFID has several purposes:

    • To see if an item has passed a certain point, commonly known as a choke point. Examples of this are items being loaded on or off a trailer at a shipping door or items passing from one area to another in a plant.
    • To verify if something is within a certain area when using a scanning device, such as a handheld reader. If one is scanning shelves of parts or equipment, it will help locate those items.
    • To track usage of equipment in MIS systems.
    • The tags can also have data written to them if needed.

The big thing that UHF RFID cannot do is effectively track the exact location of something at any given time in a cost-effective manner. Generally, UHF RFID uses what are called passive tags for the antennas to read. These tags have no battery and get energized from the antenna signal. If you placed enough antennas all over a facility and enough of these tags, then you could possibly locate something within a certain proximity, but not exactly, and this is hardly cost effective.

UHF Real Time Location Systems (RTLSs)

RTLS, on the other hand, are specifically designed to pinpoint the location of anything with a tag or transponder on it. In fact, RTLS refers to any system that can accurately determine an item or person’s location. An important aspect of RTLS is how frequently assets must be tracked. This data can be used in different ways depending on the application. For example, some RTLS applications only need timestamps when an asset passes through an area, while others require much higher visibility, requiring constant updating of time data.

An ideal RTLS can accurately locate, track, and manage assets, inventory, or people, and help companies make knowledgeable decisions based on collected location data.

Like regular UHF RFID, RTLS can use passive or active tags (tags with batteries), but they use triangulation of multiple antennas to determine the location of an object or person. The strength of the signal at each antenna, combined with the software attached to the antennas, allows the identification of the location of an object or person within less than 1 meter.

The system you choose depends on the needs at your location. They both work quite well when implemented properly by trained professionals.

Also, due to the inherent properties of ultra-high frequencies used in UHF RFID technology and RTLS, you should perform a feasibility study that actually tests the system in the real world environment of the plant prior to implementing these systems in any application.

Lithium Ion Battery Manufacturing – RFID is on a Roll

With more and more consumers setting their sights on ‘Drive Electric,’ manufacturers must prepare themselves for alternative solutions to combustion engines. This change will no doubt require an alternative automation strategy for our electric futures.

The battery

The driving force behind these new electric vehicles is, of course, the battery. With this new wave of electric vehicles, the lithium ion battery manufacturing sector is growing exponentially, creating a significant need for traceability and tracking throughout the manufacturing processes.

Battery manufacturing is classified into three major production areas:

    1. Electrode manufacturing
    2. Cell assembly
    3. Finishing formation, aging and testing

These processes require flexible and efficient automation solutions to produce high quality batteries effectively. As such, there are numerous areas that can benefit from RFID and/or code reading solutions. One of the biggest of these is the electrode manufacturing process, specifically on the individual mother and daughter electrode rolls. This is a great application for UHF (Ultra-High Frequency) RFID.

The Need for RFID

The electrode formation process involves numerous production steps, including mixing, coating, calendaring, drying, slitting and vacuum drying. Each machine process generally begins with unwinding turrets and ends with winding ones. A roll-to-roll process.

Two of the three primary components of the lithium ion battery, both the anode and cathode electrode, are produced on rolls and require identification, process step validation and full traceability all the way through the plant.

During the slitting process both larger mother rolls are unwound and sliced into multiple, smaller daughter rolls. These mother and daughter rolls must also be tracked and traced through the remaining processes, into storage and ultimately, into a battery cell.

Solution

Working with our battery customers and understanding their process needs, a UHF RFID tag was developed specifically to withstand the electrode production environment. Having a tag that can withstand a high temperature range is crucial, particularly in the vacuum drying lines. This tag is capable of surviving cycling applications with temperatures up to 235 °C. Its small form factor is ideal for recess mounting in the anode and cathode roll cores with an operating range reaching 4 meters.

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The tag embedded in the roll core paired with an RFID processor and UHF antenna provides all the necessary hardware in supporting battery plants to achieve their desired objective of tracking all production steps. Customers not only have the option of obtaining read/writes, via fixed antennas at the turrets, but also handheld ones for all storage locations — from goods receiving to daughter coil storage racks within a plant.

This UHF RFID system allows for tracking from the initial electrode coils from goods received in the warehouse, through the multiple machines in the electrode manufacturing process, into the storage areas, and to the battery cell assembly going in the electric vehicle — ultimately linking all battery cells back to a particular daughter roll, and back to its initial mother roll. RFID is on a Roll!

RFID Basics – Gain Key Knowledge to Select the Best Fit System

As digitalization evolves, industrial companies are automating more and more manual processes. Consequently, they transfer paper-based tasks in the field of identification  to digital solutions. One important enabling technology is radio frequency identification (RFID), which uses radio frequency to exchange data between two different entities for the purpose of identification. Since this technology is mature, many companies now trust it to improve their efficiency. Strong arguments for RFID technology include its contactless reading, which makes it wear-free. Plus, it’s maintenance-free and insensitive to dirt.

RFID basics for selecting the best fit system

There are myriad applications for RFID in the manufacturing process, which can be clustered into the following areas:

    • Asset management e.g. tool identification on machine tools or mold management on injection molding machines in plastic processing companies
    • Traceability for work piece tracking in production
    • Access control for safety and security purposes by instructed and authorized experts to ensure that only the right people can access the machine and change parameters, etc.

But not all RFID is the same. It is important to select the system type and components that are best suited for your application.

Frequencies and their best applications

RFID runs on three different frequency bands, each of which has its advantages and disadvantages.

Low Frequency (LF)
LF systems are in the range of 30…300 kHz and are best suited for close range and for difficult conditions, such as metallic surroundings. Therefore, they fit perfectly in tool identification applications, such as in machine tools, Additionally, they are used in livestock and other animal tracking. The semiconductor industry (front end) relies on this frequency (134kHz) as well.

High Frequency (HF)
HF in the range of 3…30 MHz is ideal for parts tracking at close range up to 400 mm. With HF you can process and store larger quantities of data, which is helpful for tracking and tracing workpieces in industrial applications. But companies also use it for production control. It comes along with high data transmission speeds. Accordingly, it accelerates identification processes.

Ultra High Frequency (UHF)
UHF systems in the range of  300 MHz…3 GHz are widely used in intralogistics applications and typically communicate at a range of up to 6 m distance. Importantly, they allow bulk reading of tags.

RFID key components

Every RFID system consists of three components.

    1. RFID tag (data carrier). The data carrier stores all kinds of information. It can be read and/or changed (write) by computers or automation systems. Read/write versions are available in various memory capacities and with various storage mechanisms. RFID tags are usually classified based on their modes of power supply, including:

– Passive data carriers: without power supply
– Active data carriers: with power supply

2. Antenna or Read/Write head. The antenna supplies the RFID tag with power and reads the data. If desired, it can also write new data on it.

3. Processing unit. The processing unit is used for signal processing and preparation. It typically includes an integrated interface for connecting to the controller or the PC system.

RFID systems are designed for some of the toughest environments and address just most identification applications in the plants. To learn more about industrial RFID applications and components visit www.balluff.us/rifd.

How Industrial RFID Can Reduce Downtime in Your Stamping Department

The appliance industry is growing at record rates. The increase in consumer demand for new appliances is at an all-time high and is outpacing current supply. Appliance manufacturers are increasing production to catch up with this demand. This makes the costs associated with downtime even higher than normal. But using industrial RFID can allow you to reduce downtime in your stamping departments and keep production moving.

Most major household appliance manufacturers have large stamping departments as part of their manufacturing process. I like to think of the stamping department as the heart of the manufacturing plant. If you have ever been in a stamping department while they are stamping out metal parts, then you understand. The thumping and vibration of the press at work is what feeds the rest of the plant.  I was in a plant a few weeks ago meeting with an engineer in the final assembly area. It was oddly quiet in that area, so I asked what was going on. He said they’d sent everyone home early because one of their major press lines went down unexpectedly. Every department got sent home because they did not have the pieces and parts needed to make the final product. That is how critical the stamping departments are at these facilities.

In past years, this wasn’t as critical, because they had an inventory of parts and finished product. But the increase in demand over the last two years depleted that inventory. They need ways to modernize the press shop, including implementing smarter products like devices with Industry 4.0 capabilities to get real-time data on the equipment for things like analytics, OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness), preventative maintenance, downtime, and more error proofing applications.

Implementing Industrial RFID

One of the first solutions many appliance manufacturers implement in the press department is traceability using industrial RFID technology. Traceability is typically used to document and track different steps in a process chain to help reduce the costs associated with non-conformance issues. This information is critical when a company needs to provide information for proactive product recalls, regulatory compliance, and quality standards. In stamping departments, industrial RFID is often used for applications like asset tracking, machine access control, and die identification. Die ID is not only used to identify which die is present, but it can also be tied back to the main press control system to make sure the correct job is loaded.

need for RFID in appliance stamping
This shows an outdated manual method using papers that are easily lost or destroyed.
appliance stamping can be improved by RFID
This image shows an identification painted on a die, which can be easily destroyed.

Traditionally, most companies have a die number either painted on the die or they have a piece of paper with the job set up attached to the die. I cannot tell you how many times I have seen these pieces of paper on the floor. Press departments are pretty nasty environments, so these pieces of paper get messed up pretty quickly. And the dies take a beating, so painted numbers can easily get rubbed or scratched off.

Implementing RFID for die ID is a simple and affordable solution to this problem. First, you would attach an RFID tag with all of the information about the job to each die. You could also write maintenance information about the die to this tag, such as when the die was last worked on, who last worked on it, or process information like how many parts have been made on this die.
Next, you need to place an antenna. Most people mount the antenna to one of the columns of the press where the tag would pass in front of it as it is getting loaded into the die. The antenna would be tied back to a processor or IO-Link master if using IO-Link. The processor or IO-Link master would communicate with the main press control system. As the die is set in the press, the antenna reads the tag and tells the main control system which die is in place and what job to load.

In a stamping department you might find several large presses. Each press will have multiple dies that are associated with each press. Each die is set up to form a particular part. It is unique to the part it is forming and has its own job, or recipe, programmed in the main press control system. Many major stamping departments still use manual operator entry for set up and to identify which tools are in the press. But operators are human, so it is very easy to punch in the wrong number, which is why RFID is a good, automated solution.

In conclusion

When I talk with people in stamping departments, they tell me one of the main reasons a crash occurs is because information was entered incorrectly by the operator during set up. Crashes can be expensive to repair because of the damage to the tooling or press, but also because of the downtime associated. Establishing a good die setup process is critical to a stamping department’s success and implementing RFID can eliminate many of these issues.

UHF RFID: Driving Efficiency in Automotive Production

Manufactured in batch size 1, bumper to bumper on modular production lines, with the support of collaborative robots –  this is the reality in modern automotive production. Without transparent and continuous processes, production would come to a standstill. Therefore, it is important to have reliable technology in use. For many car manufacturers, UHF RFID is not only used to control manufacturing within a plant but recently more and more also to track new vehicles in the finishing and even shipping processes. And many manufacturers have already started using UHF across production plants and even across companies with their suppliers because it makes just-in-time and just-in-sequence production a lot easier. This blog post gives an insight into why UHF could be the technology of the future for automotive production.

What is UHF?

UHF stands for ultra-high frequency and is the frequency band of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) from 300 MHz to 3 GHz. UHF with the EPC global Gen2 UHF standard typically in the frequency range of 860 – 960 MHz, with regional differences. Besides UHF other popular RFID frequency bands used in production are LF (low frequency) – operating typically at 125 kHz – and HF (high frequency) – operating typically at 13.56 MHz worldwide. LF is used mainly for Tool ID and HF for ticketing, payment, and production and access control.

UHF RFID used to ensure the proper headrest is placed on automotive seats.
An RFID sensor scans a tag on a car headset during production

UHF systems have the longest read range with up to a few meters and a faster data transfer rate than LF or HF. Therefore, it’s used in a wide variety of applications and the fastest growing segment of the RFID market. Tracking goods or car parts in the supply chain, inventorying assets, and authenticating car parts are just some examples for the automotive industry.

And this is how it works: A UHF reader emits a signal and energy to its environment via an antenna. If a UHF data carrier can be activated by this energy, a data exchange can take place. The data carrier or tag backscatters the reader signal and modulates it according to its specific data content.

UHF vs. Optical systems

Intelligent data generated by intelligent RFID solutions is a crucial part of efficient and transparent processes. To achieve this, the use of innovative UHF technology is essential. Because in the long-term UHF could replace existing HF or LF RFID applications as well as optical systems. Due to its wider range of functions and performance, UHF has the potential to enable a cross-enterprise data flow.

This table shows that UHF can offer a performance and interaction that optical formats can’t:

 

  UHF Systems Optical Systems
Automation Automated process reduces or eliminates manual scanning Manual scanning or low-level automation
Speed 20,000 units per hour (ms/read) 450 units per hour (s/read)
Convenience Can scan items even when they are hidden from view or inside a package Can scan only what it can see
Efficiency Scanning many at once is possible Scans one at a time
Intelligence Chip memory, which can be updated or rewritten to create a more dynamic and responsive process Static data on the label
Security Security features, such as authentication, can be offered on the item level Security features not available or even possible

Sometimes short range is required

Although the UHF technology can read up to a few meters – which is perfect and even required for (intra)logistic processes – this can also be a challenge, especially in some manufacturing areas. Within part production it is often necessary that the detection range is limited and only one part is detected at a time. In these cases, it’s important that the power is either turned down so far that only one part is detected at a time or a special short-range UHF reader resp. special short-range antenna are used.

The technology’s potential can only be fully exploited if every stage of production is supported by UHF. The use of UHF is versatile and can either be used as closed-loop where the UHF tag stays in the production process or as open-loop with UHF labels that are glued onto or into parts like car bodies, bumpers, head rests, tires etc. where they will remain and possibly be used during the subsequent logistics applications.

Besides eliminating manual processes, UHF RFID delivers full visibility of your inventory (automated!) at any time which helps you to reduce shrinkage and prevent stock losses. This improves your overall business operations. Additionally, you can secure access to certain areas.

Another reason to rely up on UHF is the consistently high standard of data quality. When you acquire the same data type from all areas you can generate trend analysis as the readings can be compared with one another. So, you can obtain extensive information on the entire production process – something that isn’t possible when mixing different technologies. This gives you the opportunity to utilize preventive measures.

 

RFID Replaces Bar Codes for Efficient Asset Tracking

Bar code technology has been around for many years and is a tried and true means for tracking asset and product movement, but it has its limitations. For example, a bar code reader must have an unobstructed view of the bar code to effectively scan. And the bar code label cannot be damaged, or it is then unreadable by the scanner.

In more recent years, additional RFID technologies have been more readily available for use to accomplish the same task but with fewer limitations. Using RFD, a scanner may be able to read tags that are blocked by other things and not visible to the naked eye. UHF RFID can scan multiple tags at the same time in a single scan, whereas most bar codes need to be scanned individually. This, therefore, increases efficiency and reduces the time required to perform the scans.

Then, of course, there is the human factor. RFID can help eliminate mistakes caused by human error. Most bar code scanning is done with hand scanners held by workers since the scanner has to be in the exact position to see the bar code to get a good scan. While manual/hand-held scanning can be done using RFID, most times a fixed scanner can be used as long as the position of the RFID tag can be guaranteed within certain tolerances. These tolerances are much greater than with a bar code scanner.

With the advent of inexpensive consumable RFID labels, the ease and cost of transitioning to RFID technology has become more feasible for manufacturers and end users. These labels can be purchased for pennies each in rolls of several thousand at a time.

It should be noted that several companies now produce printers that can actually code the information on a RFID label tag while also printing data, including bar codes, on these label tags so you have the best of both worlds. Tags can be scanned automatically and data that can be read by the human eye as well as a bar code scanner.

Some companies have expressed concern about the usage of RFID in different countries due to local regulations regarding the frequencies of radio waves causing interferences.

This is not an issue for HF  and UHF technology. HF is an ISO standard (ISO 15693) technology so it applies to most everywhere. For UHF, which is more likely to be used due to the ability to scan at a distance and scan multiple tags at the same time, the only caveat is that different areas of the world allow scanners to only operate in certain frequencies. This is overcome by the fact that almost all UHF tags that I have encountered are what are called global tags.

This means these tags can be used in any of the global frequency ranges of UHF signals. For example, in the North America, the FCC restricts the frequency range for UHF RFID scanners to 902-928 MHz, whereas MIC in Japan restricts them to 952-954 MHz, ETSI EN 300-220 in Europe restricts them to 865-868 MHz, and DOT in India restricts them to 865-867 MHz. These global tags can be used in any of these ranges as they work from 860 to 960 MHz.

On the subject of UHF, it should be mentioned that in addition to the frequency ranges restricted by various part of the world, maximum antenna power is also locally restricted.

For more information on RFID for asset tracking, visit https://www.balluff.com/local/us/products/product-overview/rfid/