The difference between a product being ‘explosion proof’ and ‘intrinsically safe’ can be confusing but it is vital to select the proper one for your application.
Both approvals are meant to prevent a potential electrical equipment malfunction from initiating an explosion or ignition through gases that may be present in the surrounding area. This is accomplished in both cases by keeping the potential energy level below what is necessary to start ignition process in an open atmosphere.
What does this mean?
The term “intrinsically safe” describes a protection technique that limits the electrical and/or thermal energy of electrical equipment used in potentially explosive areas such that there is insufficient energy to ignite the hazardous gases or dust.
‘Explosion proof’ applies to an encased apparatus that is capable of withstanding a material explosion. Which means, if combustible gases entered the explosion proof housing and were ignited by the electrical energy within the housing, the resultant “explosion” would be contained inside the housing. The energy from the explosion would then be dissipated through the large surface of flanges or threads paths of the enclosure. By the time the “explosion” exits the housing, there is insufficient energy remaining to ignite the surrounding atmosphere.
How do I know which to choose?
Zone classification is one method for defining the level of risk in a hazardous area and determining which level of protection is required.
Zone 0: Area with permanent risk of explosive atmosphere of air and gas
Zone 1: Area with occasional risk of explosive atmospheres
Zone 2: Area of rare risk of explosive atmospheres of air and gas, only for short periods
Zone 20: Like Zone 0 except atmosphere of air and dust
Zone 21: Like Zone 1 except atmosphere of air and dust
Zone 22: Like Zone 2 except atmosphere of air and dust
Additional certifications and classifications used to determine both explosion proof and intrinsically safe approvals, including more in-depth divisions that explore application and environment specifics, can be found here.
Continuous control of process media significantly contributes to the reliability of industrial production. More and more process technology is involved in industrial manufacturing. Besides pressure and level sensors, temperature sensors are also needed to monitor and control these media. Although new machine designs are often optimized in terms of energy efficiency, heat is added to the production equipment.
To achieve a defined and stable temperature level (in many cases only slightly above the environmental temperature) the added heat dissipation of the production process constantly must be managed. Typically a coolant liquid or hydraulic fluid is cycling through the areas of the production equipment, which tend to heat up. It then runs to a heat exchanger system which cools down the liquid to a defined value. Some applications even require a defined viscosity of the liquids in use. Often the media viscosity depends on its temperature. Historically classic cylindrical housing temperature probes have been applied for temperature measurement. The values are transferred by cables to a PLC. For factory automation applications, housings with integrated display and an adjustable switching point (via pushbutton parametrization) have become more and more popular.
Many housing styles now also include a digital display so in addition to the sensor transmitting temperature values via cable to the control system, they provide a visual monitoring functionality for the machine/plant operator.
Monitoring of industrial processes
Monitoring of industrial processes has become more and more relevant. With increasing digitalization in manufacturing, the demand of transparent visualization of the production constantly grows.
Collaborative robots, or cobots, is currently one of the most exciting topics in automation. But what do people mean when they say “collaborative robot”? Generally, they are talking about robots which can safely work near and together with humans. The goal of a collaborative robot system is to optimize the use of humans and robots, building on the capabilities of each.
There are four modes of robot collaborative operation defined by the global standard ISO/TS 15066. We discussed these modes in a previous blog, Robot Collaborative Operation.
This post will go more deeply into the most commonly used mode: power & force limiting. Robots in this category include ones made by Universal Robots, as well as FANUC’s green robots and ABB’s Yumi.
What is power & force limiting?
Power & force limiting robots are designed with limited power and force, along with physical features to avoid or reduce injury or damage in case of contact. These robots are generally smaller, slower and less powerful than traditional robots but also more flexible and able to work near or with humans — assuming a risk assessment determines it is safe to do so.
The standards define the creation of a shared or collaborative work space for the robot and human, and define how they may interact in this space. In a power & force limiting application, the robot and operator can be in the shared/collaborative work space at the same time and there may be contact or collision between the operator and the collaborative robot system (which includes the robot, gripper/tool and work piece). Under the proper conditions the features built into the power & force limiting robot allow this close interaction and contact to occur without danger to the operator.
What technologies allow these robots to work closely with humans?
The limiting of the robot’s force can be implemented in several ways. Internal torque/feedback sensors in the joints, external sensors or “skins” and/or elastic joints are some of the methods robot suppliers use to assure low force or low impact. They also design possible contact areas to avoid injury or damage by using rounded edges, padding, large surface areas, etc. to soften contact. Grippers, tools and work pieces also need to be considered and designed to avoid injury or damage to people and equipment.
Peripherally, additional sensors in the robots, grippers, tools, work holders and surrounding work stations are critical parts of high performance robot applications. Connecting these sensors through protocols such as IO-Link and PROFISafe Over IO-Link allows more tightly integrated, better performing, and safer collaborative robot systems.
Where are power & force limiting robots typically applied?
Similar to traditional robots, power & force limiting robots are best applied in applications which are dull, dirty and/or dangerous (the 3 Ds of robotics). They are especially well suited to applications where the danger is ergonomic — repetitive tasks which cause strain on an operator. In many cases, power & force limiting robots are being applied to cooperate closely with people: the robots take on the repetitive tasks, while the humans take on the tasks which require more cognitive skills.
A large number of the customers for power & force limiting robots are small or medium-sized enterprises which can not afford the investment and time to implement a traditional robot, but find that power & force limiting robots fit within their budget and technical capabilities.
What are some of the benefits and drawbacks to power & force limiting robots?
Fast, simple programming and set up; often does not require special knowledge or training
Small and lightweight
Easy to deploy and redeploy
Can be fenceless
Low power usage
Close human-robot interaction
Low precision (not always the case, and improving)
Buying a power & force limiting robot does not necessarily mean that fences or other safeguards can be removed; a risk assessment must be completed in order to ensure the application is appropriately safeguarded. The benefits, however, can be significant, especially for smaller firms with limited resources. These firms will find that power & force limiting robots are very good at cost-effectively solving many of their dull, dirty and dangerous applications.
It goes without saying that food safety is an extremely important aspect of the food and beverage industry. While manufacturers would naturally take precautions to ensure their food products are safe to consume, they are required to follow a set of rigid guidelines and standards to ensure the safety of the foodstuffs to prevent contamination.
To determine which rating, standards or certifications are required for a particular food and beverage segment, you must first consider the type of food contact zone and whether it is an open or closed process.
Food Contact Zones
The food contact zone is determined by the potential contamination that can occur based on the production equipment’s exposure to food and its byproducts.
Food Zone: an area intended to be exposed to direct contact with food or surfaces where food or other substances may contact and then flow, drain or drain back onto food or food contact surfaces.
Splash Zone: an area that is routinely exposed to indirect food contact due to splashes and spills. These areas are not intended for contact with consumable food.
Nonfood Zone: An area that is not exposed to food or splashes but will likely be exposed to minor dirt and debris.
Open and Closed Production
In the food and beverage industry, it is also important to discuss whether the manufacturing process is open or closed. The distinction between the two plays a significant role in determining machine cleaning requirements.
Closed Process: A manufacturing operation in which the food product never comes in contact with the environment. All food contact zones are sealed such as the inner surfaces of tanks, pipelines, valves, pumps and sensors.
Open Process: A manufacturing operation in which food does have contact with the environment outside of the machine. This requires a hygienic design of the process environment, as well as the surfaces of the apparatus and components.
Required ratings, standards and certifications
Once you know the food zone and whether the production is open or closed, it becomes simple to determine which ratings, standards or certifications are required of the machinery and apparatus in the food and beverage manufacturing process.
Food Contact Zone — Hygienic
IP69K – tested to be protected from high pressure steam cleaning per DIN40050 part 9
FDA – made of FDA approved materials, most often 316L stainless steel
3-A – certified sanitary and hygienic equipment materials and design in the US
EHEDG – certified sanitary and hygienic equipment materials and design in Europe
Food Splash Zone — Washdown
IP69K – tested to be protected from high pressure steam cleaning per DIN40050 part 9
ECOLAB – surfaces tested to be protected from cleaning and disinfecting agents
Nonfood Zone — Factory Automation
IP67 – rated for water immersion up to a meter deep for half an hour
IP65 – rated as dust tight and protected against water projected from a nozzle
For more information on the requirements of the food and beverage industry, visit www.balluff.com.
IO-Link is a point-to-point communication standard [IEC61131-9]. It is basically a protocol for communicating information from end devices to the controller and back. The beauty of this protocol is that it does not require any specialized cabling. It uses the standard 3-pin sensor cable to communicate. Before IO-Link, each device needed a different cable and communication protocol. For example, measurement devices needed analog signals for communication and shielded cables; digital devices such as proximity sensors or photo eyes needed 2-pin/3-pin cables to communicate ON/OFF state; and any type of smart devices such as laser sensors needed both interfaces requiring multi-conductor cables. All of these requirements and communication was limited to signals.
With IO-Link all the devices communicate over a standard 3-pin (some devices would require 4/5 pin depending if they need separate power for actuation). And, instead of communicating signals, all these devices are communicating data. This provides a tremendous amount of flexibility in designing the controls architectures for the next generation machines.
IO-Link data communication can be divided into 3 parts:
Process data: This is the basic functionality of the sensor communicated over cyclical messages. For example, a measurement device communicating measurement values, not 4-20mA signals, but the engineering units of measurement.
Parameter data: This is a cyclic messaging data communication and where IO-Link really shines. Manufacturers can add significant value to their sensors in this area. Parameter data is communicated only when the controller wants to make changes to the sensor. Examples of this include changing the engineering units of measurement from inches to millimeters or feet, or changing the operational mode of a photoelectric sensor from through-beam to retro-reflective, or even collecting capacitance value from a capacitive sensor. There is no specific parameter data governed by the consortium — consortium only focuses on how this data is communicated.
Event data: This is where IO-Link helps out by troubleshooting and debugging issues. Event messages are generated by the sensor to inform the controller that something has changed or to convey critical information about the sensor itself. A good example would be when a photoeye lens gets cloudy or knocked out of alignment causing a significant decrease in the re-emitted light value and the sensor triggers an event indicating the probable failure. The other example is the sensor triggering an event to alert the control system of a high amperage spike or critical ambient temperatures. When to trigger these events can be scheduled through parameter data for that sensor.
Each and every IO-Link device on the market offers different configurations and are ideally suited for various purposes in the plant. If inventory optimization is the goal of the plant, the buyer should look for features in the IO-Link device that can function in different modes of operation such as a photo eye that can operate as through-beam or retro-reflective. On the other hand, if machine condition monitoring is the objective, then he should opt for sensors that can offer vibration and ambient temperature information along with the primary function.
In short, IO-Link communication offers tremendous benefits to operations. With options like auto-parameterization and cable standardization, IO-Link is a maintenance-friendly standard delivering major benefits across manufacturing.
Based on the increasing popularity of machine mounted I/O utilizing readily available IP67 components, it’s more important than ever to utilize every I/O point. I/O density has increased over the years and the types of I/O have become more diversified, yet in many systems pin 2 is left unused by the end user. Sensors tend to come in twos, for example, a pneumatic cylinder may require a sensor for the extended position and one for the retracted position. Running each individual sensor back to the interface block utilizes pins 1,3 and 4 (for power, ground and signal) but wastes pin 2 on each port.
Rather than using a separate port on the I/O block for each sensor, a splitter can collect the outputs of two sensors and deliver the input to a single port. With a splitter, one sensor output goes to pin 4, the other goes to pin 2.
By putting two signals into one and utilizing both pins 2 and 4, the overall I/O point cost decreases.
There are multiple ways to configure a splitter to utilize pin 2. We will review three methods — good, better and best:
1. T-splitter on the I/O block:
A T-splitter is a good way to utilize pin 2. However, the “T” covers the I/O module port eliminating the benefit of the high-value diagnostic LEDs on the block. Also, individual cables must run all the way from the block to the sensors at the installation point, creating clutter and cable bulk. In addition, when Ts are used on a vertically mounted block, the extra cable bulk can weigh down the T-splitter and threaten its integrity.
2. V-type splitter on the I/O block:
The use of a V-type configuration allows better visibility of the diagnostic LEDs and eliminates the need to purchase a separate part. However, individual cables must still be run from the block to the sensors, creating clutter and cable bulk.
3. Y–type configuration:
In the Y-type splitter configuration, all aspects of usability are improved. One cable runs from the I/O block to the installation point. The split of pins 2 and 4 is done as close to the sensors as possible. This significantly cleans up cable clutter, provides a completely unrestricted view of the diagnostic LEDs and allows for easy installation of multiple connectors to the I/O block.
The key to deploying a robust machine vision application in a factory automation setting is ensuring that you create the necessary environment for a stable image. The three areas you must focus on to ensure image stability are: lighting, lensing and material handling. For this blog, I will focus on the seven main lighting techniques that are used in machine vision applications.
On-Axis Ring Lighting
On-axis ring lighting is the most common type of lighting because in many cases it is integrated on the camera and available as one part number. When using this type of lighting you almost always want to be a few degrees off perpendicular (Image 1A). If you are perpendicular to the object you will get hot spots in the image (Image 1B), which is not desirable. When the camera with its ring light is tilted slightly off perpendicular you achieve the desired image (Image 1C).
Off-Axes Bright Field Lighting
Off-axes bright field lighting works by having a separate LED source mounted at about 15 degrees off perpendicular and having the camera mounted perpendicular to the surface (Image 2A). This lighting technique works best on mostly flat surfaces. The main surface or field will be bright, and the holes or indentations will be dark (Image 2B).
Dark Field Lighting
Dark field lighting is required to be very close to the part, usually within an inch. The mounting angle of the dark field LEDs needs to be at least 45 degrees or more to create the desired effect (Image 3A). In short, it has the opposite effect of Bright Field lighting, meaning the surface or field is dark and the indentations or bumps will be much brighter (Image 3B).
Back lighting works by having the camera pointed directly at the back light in a perpendicular mount. The object you are inspecting is positioned in between the camera and the back light (Image 4A). This lighting technique is the most robust that you can use because it creates a black target on a white background (Image 4B).
Diffused Dome Lighting
Diffused dome lighting, aka the salad bowl light, works by having a hole at the top of the salad bowl where the camera is mounted and the LEDs are mounted down at the rim of the salad bowl, pointing straight up which causes the light to reflect off of the curved surface of the salad bowl and it creates very uniform reflection (Image 5A). Diffused dome lighting is used when the object you are inspecting is curved or non-uniform (Image 5B). After applying this lighting technique to an uneven surface or texture, hotspots and other sharp details are deemphasized, and it creates a sort of matte finish to the image (Image 5C).
Diffused On-Axis Lighting
Diffused on-axis lighting, or DOAL, works by having a LED light source pointed at a beam splitter and the reflected light is then parallel with the direction that the camera is mounted (Image 6A). DOAL lighting should only be used on flat surfaces where you are trying to diminish very shiny parts of the surface to create a uniformed image. Applications like DVD, CD, or silicon wafer inspection are some of the most common uses for this type of lighting.
Structured Laser Line Lighting
Structured laser line lighting works by projecting a laser line onto a three-dimensional object (Image 7A), resulting in an image that gives you information on the height of the object. Depending on the mounting angle of the camera and laser line transmitter, the resulting laser line shift will be larger or smaller as you change the angle of the devices (Image 7B). When there is no object the laser line will be flat (Image 7C).
Real Life Applications
The images below, (Image 8A) and (Image 8B) were used for an application that requires the pins of a connector to be counted. As you can see, the bright field lighting on the left does not produce a clear image but the dark field lighting on the right does.
This next example (Image 9A) and (Image 9B) was for an application that requires a bar code to be read through a cellophane wrapper. The unclear image (Image 9A) was acquired by using an on-axis ring light, while the use of dome lighting (Image 9B) resulted in a clear, easy-to-read image of the bar code.
This example (Image 10A), (Image 10B) and (Image 10C) highlights different lighting techniques on the same object. In the (Image 10A) image, backlighting is being used to measure the smaller hole diameter. In image (Image 10B) dome lighting is being used for inspecting the taper of the upper hole in reference to the lower hole. In (Image 10C) dark field lighting is being used to do optical character recognition “OCR” on the object. Each of these could be viewed as a positive or negative depending on what you are trying to accomplish.
Reducing manufacturing costs is absolutely a priority within the automotive manufacturing industry. To help reduce costs there has been and continues to be pressure to lower MRO costs on high volume consumables such as inductive proximity sensors.
Traditionally within the MRO community, the strategy has been to drive down the unit cost of components from their suppliers year over year to ensure reduce costs as much as possible. Of course, cost optimization is important and should continue to be, but factors other than unit cost should be considered. Let’s explore some of these as it would apply to inductive proximity sensors in the weld shop.
Due to the aggressive manufacturing environment within weld cell, devices such as inductive proximity sensors are subjected to a variety of hostile factors such as high temperature, impact damage, high EMF (electromagnetic fields) and weld spatter. All of these factors drastically reduce the life of these devices.
There are manufacturing costs associated with a failed device well beyond that of the unit cost of the device itself. These real costs can be and are reflected in incremental premium costs such as increased downtime (both planned and unplanned), poor asset allocation, indirect inventory, expedited freight, outsourcing costs, overtime, increased manpower, higher scrap levels, and sorting & rework costs. All of these factors negatively affect a facility’s Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE).
In selection of inductive proximity sensors for the weld manufacturing environment there are root cause misconceptions and poor responses to the problem. Responses include: leave the sensor, mounting and cable selection up to the machine builder; bypass the failed sensor and keep running production until the failed device can be replaced; install multiple vending machines in the plant to provide easier access to spare parts (replace sensors often to reduce unplanned downtime); and the sensors are going to fail anyway so just buy the cheapest device possible.
None of these address the root cause of the failure. They mask the root cause and exacerbate the scheduled and unscheduled downtime or can cause serious part contamination issues down stream, resulting in enormous penalties from their customer.
So, how can we implement a countermeasure to help us drive out these expensive operating costs?
Sensor Mounting – Utilize a fixed mounting system that will allow a proximity sensor to slide into perfect mounting position with a positive stop to prevent the device from being over extended and being struck by the work piece. This mounting system should have a weld spatter protective coating to reduce the adherence of weld spatter. This will also provide extra impact protection and a thermal barrier to further assist in protecting the sensing device asset.
The Sensor – Utilize a robust fully weld protective coated stainless steel body and face proximity sensor. For applications with the sensor in an “on state” during the weld cycle and/or to detect non-ferrous utilize a proper weld protective coated Factor 1 (F1) device.
Cabling – A standard cable will not withstand a weld environment such as MIG welding. Even a cable with protective tubing can have open areas vulnerable for weld berries to land and cause burn through on the cables resulting in a dead short. A proper weld sensor cord set with protective coating on the lock nut, high temp rated and weld resistant overmold to a weld resistant jacketed cable should be used.
By implementing a weld best practice total solution as described above, you will realize significant increases in your facilities OEE contributing to the profitability and sustainability of your organization.
Ask these 3 simple questions:
1) What is the frequency of failure
2) What is the Mean Time To Repair (MTTR)
3) What is the cost per minute of downtime.
Once you have that information you will know with your own metrics what the problem is costing your facility by day/month/year. You may be surprised to see how much of a financial burden these issues are costing you. Investing in the correct best practice assets will allow you to realize immediate results to boost your company OEE.
While RFID technology has been in use since the 1950s, wide-spread implementation has come in waves over the years. Beginning with military applications where it was used to identify friend or foe aircraft, to inventory control in the retail industry, and now to the manufacturing space where it is being used to manage work in process, track assets, control inventory, and aid with automatic replenishment.
The bottom line is RFID is critical in the manufacturing process. Why? Because, fundamentally, it provides actionable data that is used to make critical decisions. If your organization has not yet subscribed to RFID technology then it is getting ready to. This doesn’t mean just in the shipping and receiving area. Wide-spread adoption is happening on the production line, in the tool room, on dies, molds, machine tools, on AGV’s, on pallets, and so much more.
Learn about the fundamentals of a passive RFID system here.
In the past, controls engineers, quality assurance managers, and maintenance supervisors were early adopters because RFID played a critical role in giving them the data they needed. Thanks to global manufacturing initiatives like Smart Factory, Industry 4.0, the Industrial Internet of things (IIOT) and a plethora of other manufacturing buzz words, CEOs, CFOs, and COOs are driving RFID concepts today. So, while the “hands-on” members of the plant started the revolution, the guys in the corner offices quickly recognized the power of RFID and accelerated the adoption of the technology.
While there is a frenzy in the market, it is important to keep a few things in mind when exploring how RFID can benefit your organization:
Choose your RFID partner based on their core competency in addressing manufacturing applications
Make sure they have decades of experience manufacturing and implementing RFID
Have them clearly explain their “chain of support” from local resources to experts at the HQ.
Find a partner who can clearly define the benefits of RFID in your specific process (ROI)
Partner with a company that innovates the way their customers automate
Zero downtime. This is the mantra of the food and beverage manufacturer today. The need to operate machinery at its fullest potential and then increase the machines’ capability is where the demands of food and beverage manufacturers is at today. This demand is being driven by smaller purchase orders and production runs due to e-commerce ordering, package size variations and the need for manufacturers to be more competitive by being flexible.
Using the latest technology, like IO-Link, allows manufacturers to meet those demands and improve their Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE) or the percentage of manufacturing time that is truly productive. OEE has three components:
Unplanned Stops/Downtime – Machine Failure
Planned Downtime – Set up and AdjustmentsS
Small Stops – Idling and Minor Stops
Slow Cycles – Reduced Speed
Production Rejects – Process Defects
Startup Rejects – Reduced Yield
IO-Link is a smart, easy and universal way to connect devices into your controls network.
The advantage of IO-Link is that it allows you to connect to EtherNet/IP, CC-Link & CC-LinkIE Field, Profinet & Profibus and EtherCAT & TCP/IP regardless of the brand of PLC. IO-Link also allows you to connect analog devices by eliminating traditional analog wiring and provides values in actual engineering units without scaling back at the PLC processor.
Being smart, easy and universal, IO-Link helps simplify controls architecture and provides visibility down to the sensor and device.
IO-Link communicates the following:
Process data (Control, cyclical communication of process status)
Parameter data (Configuration, messaging data with configuration information)
Event data (Diagnostics, Communication from device to master (diagnostics/errors )
This makes it the backbone of the Smart Factory as shown in the graphic below.