One of the most common devices used in manufacturing is the tried and true feeder bowl system. Used for decades, feeder bowls take bulk parts, orients them correctly and then feeds them to the next operation, usually a pick-and-place robot. It can be an effective device, but far too often, the feeder bowl can be a source of cycle-time slowdowns. Alerts are commonly used to signal when a feed problem is occurring but lack the exact cause of the slow down.
A feed system’s feed rate can be reduced my many factors. Some of these include:
Operators slow to add parts to the bowl or hopper
Hopper slow to feed the bowl
Speeds set incorrectly on hopper, bowl or feed track
Part tolerance drift or feeder tooling out of adjustment
With today’s Smart IO-Link sensors incorporating counting and timing functions, most of the slow-down factors can be easily seen through an IIoT connection. Sensors can now time how long critical functions take. As the times drift from ideal, this information can be collected and communicated upstream.
A common example of a feed system slow-down is a slow hopper feed to the bowl. When using Smart IO-Link sensors, operators can see specifically that the hopper feed time is too long. The sensor indicates a problem with the hopper but not the bowl or feed tracks. Without IO-Link, operators would simply be told the overall feed system is slow and not see the real problem. This example is also true for the hopper in-feed (potential operator problem), feed track speed and overall performance. All critical operations are now visible and known to all.
For examples of Balluff’s smart IO-Link sensors, check out our ADCAP sensor.
New automation products hit the market every day and each device requires the correct cable to operate. Even in standard cables sizes, there are a variety of connector types that correspond with different applications.
When choosing a cable, it is essential to choose the correct size, length, number of connectors, pinout, and codes for your application. This post will review cable codes, which signify different capabilities and uses for a cable. Cables that are coded differently will have different specifications and electrical features, corresponding to their intended uses. To distinguish between the different styles of cable, each connector has a different keyway, as shown in Figure 1. This is to prevent a cable from being used in an incorrect application.
There are a wide variety of cable codings used for different purposes. Below are the five most common M12 cable codes and their uses. They are as follows:
A-coded connectors are the most common style of connector. These are used for sensors, actuators, motors, and most other standard devices. A-coded connectors can vary in its number of pins, anywhere between two pins and 12 pins.
B-coded connectors are mostly used in network cables for fieldbus connections. Most notably, this includes systems that operate with Profibus. B-coded connectors typically have between three and five pins.
C-coded connectors are less common than the others. These connectors are primarily used with AC sensors and actuators. They also have a dual keyway for added security, ensuring that this connector will not be accidentally used in the place of another cable. C-coded connectors have between three and six pins.
D-coded connectors are typically used in network cables for Ethernet and ProfiNet systems. D-coded connectors transfer data up to 100 Mb. These connectors typically provide three to five pins.
X-coded connectors are a more recent advancement of the cables. They are growing in popularity due to their ability to transfer large amounts of data at high speeds. X-coded cables transfer data up to 1 Gb. These are ideal for high-speed data transfer in industrial applications. While the other coded cables typically vary in number of connectors, X-coded cables will always have eight pins.
Industrial image processing is essentially a requirement in modern manufacturing. Vision solutions can deliver visual quality control, identification and positioning. While vision systems have gotten easier to install and use, there isn’t a one-size-fits-all solution. Knowing how and when you should use optical filtering in a machine vision application is a vital part of making sure your system delivers everything you need.
So when should you use optical filtering in your machine vision applications? ALWAYS. Image filtering increases contrast, usable resolution, image quality and most importantly, it dramatically reduces ambient light interference, which is the number one reason a machine vision application doesn’t work as expected.
Different applications require different types of filtering. I’ve highlighted the most common.
Different light spectrums will enhance or de-emphasize certain aspects of the target you are inspecting. Therefore, the first thing you want to do is select the proper color/wavelength that will give you the best contrast for your application. For example, if you are using a red area light that transmits at 617nm (Figure 1), you will want to select a filter (Figure 3) to attach to the lens (Figure 2) that passes the frequency of the area light and filters out the rest of the color spectrum. This filter technique is called Bandpass filtering reference (Figure 4).
This allows only the light from the area light to pass through while all other light is filtered out. To further illustrate the kinds of effects that can be emphasized or de-emphasized we can look at the following images of the same product but with different filters.
Another example of Bandpass filtering can be seen in (Figure 9), which demonstrates the benefit of using a filter in an application to read the LOT code and best before sell date. A blue LED light source and a blue Bandpass filter make the information readable, whereas without the filter it isn’t.
Narrow Bandpass Filtering
Narrow bandpass filtering, shown in (Figure 10), is mostly used for laser line dimensional measurement applications, referenced in (Figure 11). This technique creates more ambient light immunity than normal Bandpass filtering. It also decreases the bandwidth of the image and creates a kind of black on white effect which is the desired outcome you want for this application.
Another optical filtering technique is shortpass filtering, shown in (Figure 12), which is commonly used in color camera imaging because it filters out UV and IR light sources to give you a true color image.
Longpass filtering, referenced in (Figure 13), is often used in IR applications where you want to suppress the visible light spectrum.
Neutral Density Filtering
Neutral density filtering is regularly used in LED inspection. Without filtering, light coming from the LEDs completely saturates the image making it difficult, if not impossible, to do a proper inspection. Deploying neutral density filtering acts like sunglasses for your camera. In short, it reduces the amount of full spectrum light the camera sees.
Polarization filtering is best to use when you have surfaces that are highly reflective or shiny. Polarization filtering can be deployed to reduce glare on your target. You can clearly see the benefits of this in (Figure 14).
As the automotive industry introduces more options to meet the growing complexities and demands of its customers (such as increased variety of trim options) it has rendered challenges to the automotive manufacturing industry.
Demands of the market filter directly back to the manufacturing floor of tier suppliers as they must find the means to fulfill the market requirements on a flexible industrial network, either new or existing. The success of their customers is dependent on the tier supplier chain delivering within a tight timeline. Whereby, if pressure is applied upon that ecosystem, it will mean a more difficult task to meet the JIT (just in time) supply requirements resulting in increased operating costs and potential penalties.
Meeting customer requirements creates operational challenges including lost production time due to product varieties and tool change time increases. Finding ways to simplify tool change and validate the correct components are placed in the correct assembly or module to optimize production is now an industry priority. In addition, tracking and traceability is playing a strong role in ensuring the correct manufacturing process has been followed and implemented.
How can manufacturing implement highly flexible inspection capabilities while allowing direct communication to the process control network and/or MES network that will allow the capability to change inspection characteristics on the fly for different product inspection on common tooling?
Smart Vision Inspection Systems
Compact Smart Vision Inspection System technology has evolved a long way from the temperamental technologies of only a decade ago. Systems offered today have much more robust and simplistic intuitive software tools embedded directly in the Smart Vision inspection device. These effective programming cockpit tools allow ease of use to the end user at the plant providing the capability to execute fast reliable solutions with proven algorithm tools. Multi-network protocols such as EthernetIP, ProfiNet, TCP-IP-LAN (Gigabit Ethernet) and IO-LINK have now come to realization. Having multiple network capabilities delivers the opportunity of not just communicating the inspection result to the programmable logic controller (via process network) but also the ability to send image data independent of the process network via the Gigabit Ethernet network to the cloud or MES system. The ability to over-lay relevant information onto the image such as VIN, Lot Code, Date Code etc. is now achievable. In addition, camera housings have become more industrially robust such as having aluminum housings with an ingress protection rating of IP67.
Industrial image processing is now a fixture within todays’ manufacturing process and is only growing. The technology can now bring your company a step closer to enabling IIOT by bringing issues to your attention before they create down time (predictive maintenance). They aid in reaching operational excellence as they uncover processing errors, reduce or eliminate scrap and provide meaningful feedback to allow corrective actions to be implemented.
Traceability is a term that is commonly used in most plants today. Whether it is being used to describe tracking received and shipped goods, tracking valuable assets down to their exact location, or tracking an item through production as it is being built, traceability is usually associated with only two technologies — RFID and/or barcode. While these two technologies are critical in establishing a framework for traceability within the plant, there are other technologies that can help tell the rest of the story.
Utilizing vision along with a data collection technology adds another dimension to traceability by providing physical evidence in the form of an image. While vision cameras have been widely used in manufacturing for a long time, most cameras operate outside of the traceability system. The vision system and tracking system often operate independently. While they both end up sending data to the same place, that data must be transported and processed separately which causes a major increase in network traffic.
Current vision technology allows images to be “stamped” with the information from the barcode or RFID tag. The image becomes redundant traceability by providing visual proof that everything happened correctly in the build process. In addition, instead of sending image files over the network they are sent through a separate channel to a server that contains all the process data from the tag and has the images associated with it. This frees up the production network and provides visual proof that the finished product is what we wanted it to be.
Used separately, the three technologies mentioned above provide actionable data which allows manufacturers to make important decisions. Used together, they tell a complete story and provide visual evidence of every step along the way. This allows manufacturers to make more informed decisions based on the whole story not just part of it.
The complexity of factory automation creates constant challenges which drive innovation in the industry. One of these challenges involves the ability to accurately detect the presence of shiny or highly reflective objects. This is a common challenge faced in a variety of applications, from sensing wheels in an automotive facility to detecting an aluminum can for filling purposes at a beverage plant. However, thanks to advancements in photoelectric sensing technologies, there is a reliable solution for those type of applications.
Why are highly reflective objects a challenge?
Light reflects from these types of objects in different directions, and with minimum energy loss. This can cause the receiver of a photoelectric sensor to be unable to differentiate between a signal received from the emitter or a signal received from a shiny object. In the case of a diffuse sensor, there is also the possibility that when trying to detect a shiny object, the light will reflect away from the receiver causing the sensor to ignore the target.
So how do we control the direction of the light going back to the receiver, and avoid false triggering from other light sources? The answer is in polarized retroreflective sensors.
Retroreflective sensors require a reflector which reflects the light back to the sensor allowing it to be captured by the receiver. This is achieved by incorporating sets of three mirrors oriented at right angles from each other (referred to as corner cubes). A light beam entering this system is reflected by all three surfaces and exits parallel to the incident beam. Additionally, corner cubes are said to be optically active as they rotate the plane of oscillation of the light by 90 degrees. This concept, along with polarization, allow this type of sensor to accurately detect shiny objects.
Light emitted by a regular light source oscillates in planes on dispersal axes. If the light meets a polarizing filter (fine line grid), only the light oscillating parallel to the grid is let through (see figure 1 below).
In polarized retroreflective sensors, a horizontal polarized filter is placed in front of the emitter and a vertical one in front of the receiver. By doing this, the transmitted light oscillates horizontally until it hits the reflector. The corner cubes of the reflector would then rotate the polarization direction by 90 degrees and reflect the light back to the sensor. This way, the returning light can pass through the vertical polarized filter on the receiver as shown below.
With the use of polarization and corner cubed reflectors, retroreflective sensors can create a closed light circuit which ensures that light detected by the receiver was sourced exclusively by the emitter. This creates a great solution for applications where highly reflective targets are influencing the accuracy of sensors or causing them to malfunction. By ensuring proper operation of photoelectric sensors, unplanned downtime can be avoided, and overall process efficiency can be improved.
One of the primary applications in Packaging, Food & Beverage that is a huge area for improving overall equipment efficiency (OEE) is format change. Buyers respond well to specialized or individualized packaging, meaning manufacturers need to find ways to implement those format changes and machine builders must make those flexible machines available.
Today, thanks to IO-Link devices, including master blocks, hubs and linear position sensors, improving OEE on format change is more possible today than ever before. IO-Link offers capabilities that make it ideal for format change. It communicates:
Process data (control, cyclical communication of process status)
Parameter data (configuration, messaging data with configuration information)
Event data (diagnostics, communication from device to master including diagnostics/errors)
What is format change and how does it impact OEE?
Format change is the physical adjustments necessary to make to a machine when the product is altered in some way. It could be a change in carton size, package size, package design, case size or a number of other modifications to the product or packaging. The time to adjust the machine itself or the sensors on the machine can take anywhere from 30 minutes to an entire eight- hour shift.
Types of format changes to consider when seeking to improve your OEE:
Guided format change is when the operator is assisted or guided in making the change. For example, having to move or slide a guide rail into a new position. IO-Link linear position sensors can help guide the operator, so the position is exact every time. This reduces time by eliminating the need to go back and look at an HMI or cheat sheet to determine if everything is in the right position.
Change parts is when a part needs to be swapped out on the machine for the next production run. An example of this is when the bag size on a bagger or vertical form fill and seal (VFFS) machine changes and the forming tube needs to be changed. Having an RFID tag on the forming tube and a RFID reader on the machine allows for easy verification that the correct forming tube was put on the machine and only takes seconds.
Color Change is when the color of a pouch, package or container changes for the next production run like when a yogurt pouch changes color or design while the size and shape remain the same as previous production runs. Smart color photo electric sensors can change the parameters on the photo eye to detect the correct color of the new pouch occurs instantly upon changing the recipe on the machine.
Developing semi-automated or fully automated solutions can improve OEE in regard to format change by helping reduce the time needed to make the change and providing consistent and accurate positioning with the ability to automatically change parameters in the sensor.
Being smart, easy and universal, IO-Link helps simplify format change and provides the ability to change sensor parameters quickly and easily.
As manufacturers move toward Industry 4.0 and the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), common communication platforms are needed to achieve the next level of efficiency boost. Using common communication platforms, like Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN), significantly reduces the burden of separate networks for IT and OT without compromising the separate requirements from both areas of the plant/enterprise.
TSN is the mother of all network protocols. It makes it possible to share the network bandwidth wisely by allocating rules of time sensitivity. For example, industrial motion control related communication, safety communication, general automation control communication (I/O), IT software communications, video surveillance communication, or Industrial vision system communication would need to be configured based on their time sensitivity priority so that the network of switches and communication gateways can effectively manage all the traffic without compromising service offerings.
If you are unfamiliar with TSN, you aren’t alone. Manufacturers are currently in the early adopter phase. User groups of all major industrial networking protocols such as ODVA (CIP and EtherNet/IP), PNO (for PROFINET and PROFISAFE), and CLPA (for CC-Link IE) are working toward incorporating TSN abilities in their respective network protocols. CC-Link IE Field has already released some of the products related to CC-Link IE Field TSN.
With TSN implementation, the current set of industrial protocols do not go away. If a machine uses today’s industrial protocols, it can continue to use that. TSN implementation has some gateway modules that would allow communicating the standard protocols while adding TSN to the facility.
While it would be optimal to have one universal protocol of communication across the plant floor, that is an unlikely scenario. Instead, we will continue to see TSN flavors of different protocols as each protocol has its own benefits of things it does the best. TSN allows for this co-existence of protocols on the same network.
An industrial RFID system is a powerful solution for reliably and comprehensively documenting individual working steps in manufacturing environments. But an industrial RFID system that meets your application needs isn’t available off-the-shelf. To build the system you need, it is important to consider what problems you hope RFID will solve and what return on investments you hope to see.
RFID can deliver many benefits, including process visibility and providing data needed to better manage product quality. It can be used to improve safety, satisfaction and profit margins. It can even be used to help comply with regulatory standards or to manage product recalls. And RFID can be used in a wide range of applications from broad areas like supply management to inventory tracking to more specific applications. These improvements can improve time, cost or performance—though not typically all three.
It is essential to understand and document the goal and how improvements will be measured to in order to plan a RFID system (readers, antennas, tags, cables) to best meet those goals.
Other important questions to consider:
Will the system be centralized or de-centralized? Will the system be license plate only or contain process data on the tag?
How will the data on the tags be used? Will the information be used to interface with a PLC, database or ERP? Will it be used to provide MES or logical functionality? Or to provide data to an HMI or web browser/cloud interface?
Will the system be required to comply with any international regulations or standards? If so, which ones: EPC Global, Class 1 Gen 2 (UHF only), ISO 15693, or 14443 (HF only)?
What environment does the system need to perform in? Will it be used indoor or outdoor? Will it be exposed to liquids (cleaning fluids, coolants, machine oils, caustics) or high or low temperatures?
Does the RFID system need to work with barcodes or any other human readable information?
What are the performance expectations for the components? What is the read/write range distance from head to tag? What is the station cycle timing? Is the tag metal-mounted? Does the tag need to be reused or be disposable? What communication bus is required?
With a clear set of objectives and goals, the mechanical and physical requirements discovered by answering the questions above, and guidance from an expert, a RFID system can be configured that meets your needs and delivers a strong return on investment.
The difference between a product being ‘explosion proof’ and ‘intrinsically safe’ can be confusing but it is vital to select the proper one for your application.
Both approvals are meant to prevent a potential electrical equipment malfunction from initiating an explosion or ignition through gases that may be present in the surrounding area. This is accomplished in both cases by keeping the potential energy level below what is necessary to start ignition process in an open atmosphere.
What does this mean?
The term “intrinsically safe” describes a protection technique that limits the electrical and/or thermal energy of electrical equipment used in potentially explosive areas such that there is insufficient energy to ignite the hazardous gases or dust.
‘Explosion proof’ applies to an encased apparatus that is capable of withstanding a material explosion. Which means, if combustible gases entered the explosion proof housing and were ignited by the electrical energy within the housing, the resultant “explosion” would be contained inside the housing. The energy from the explosion would then be dissipated through the large surface of flanges or threads paths of the enclosure. By the time the “explosion” exits the housing, there is insufficient energy remaining to ignite the surrounding atmosphere.
How do I know which to choose?
Zone classification is one method for defining the level of risk in a hazardous area and determining which level of protection is required.
Zone 0: Area with permanent risk of explosive atmosphere of air and gas
Zone 1: Area with occasional risk of explosive atmospheres
Zone 2: Area of rare risk of explosive atmospheres of air and gas, only for short periods
Zone 20: Like Zone 0 except atmosphere of air and dust
Zone 21: Like Zone 1 except atmosphere of air and dust
Zone 22: Like Zone 2 except atmosphere of air and dust
Additional certifications and classifications used to determine both explosion proof and intrinsically safe approvals, including more in-depth divisions that explore application and environment specifics, can be found here.