Environmental Impacts – Choosing the Right Sensor for the Conditions

Last week’s blog spoke about reducing waste and downtime by implementing LEAN manufacturing procedures. This involves taking a proactive approach to improving efficiencies. This post will focus on selecting the right part for the job to reduce failure rates that lead to avoidable machine downtime and increased costs.

Hardly a day passes by where we are not contacted by a desperate end-user or equipment manufacturer seeking assistance with a situation of sensors failing at an unacceptably high rate.  Once we get down to the root cause of the failures, in most cases it’s a situation where the sensors are being applied in a manner which all but guarantees premature failure.

Not all sensors are created equal.  Some are intentionally designed for light-duty applications where the emphasis is more on economic cost rather than the ability to survive in rough service conditions.  Other sensors are specifically designed to meet the challenges of specific application environments, and as a result may carry a higher initial price.

Some things to think about when choosing a sensor for a new application:

  • What kind of environmental conditions will the sensor be exposed to?  For example:
    • Very low or very high temperatures
    • Constant exposure to or immersion in liquid
    • Continuous vibration
    • Extreme shock
    • Disruptive electrical noise (hand-held radios, welding fields, etc.)
    • Chemical contamination
    • Physical abuse or impact
    • Abrasion
    • High pressure washdown procedures
    • Exposure to outdoor conditions of UV sunlight, rain, ice, temperature swings, and condensing humidity
  • Is it possible to relocate the sensor to move it away from the difficult condition?
  • Is the sensor technology the best choice given the kind of application environment that it must operate in?
  • Is there a way to protect the sensor from exposure to the worst of the damaging effects?

When you reach for a catalog or jump on the internet to look for a sensor, it’s a good practice to just stop a moment first and make a list of the environmental challenges that the sensor could face.  Then you will be prepared to make an appropriate selection that best meets your expected application conditions.

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Heavy metal parts being loaded into a welding cell can damage specialty nut detection sensors designed to stick through a hole in a part.  Plunger probes are a better solution.

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Unprotected and non-bunkered sensors in damage prone areas result in premature sensor failure.

The goal is to reduce waste. Why, then, are we adding waste?

Becoming LEAN continues to be a popular topic for most companies, and the goal is simple; focus on value-add activities and eliminate waste. Value-add activities are processes that support what the customer is willing to pay for, also known as your product or service. Waste is anything that gets in the way of this. When you really think about it, a business is nothing more than a string of processes, and if a process exists, there is a cost to that process. Period. Therefore, the ultimate goal should be to eliminate any process, or reduce the process waste, that does not add value to the customer.

Think of ordering a product from Amazon. As an Amazon Prime member, you order the product and like black magic, your product is magically delivered two days later. But it isn’t magic. The path to achieving guaranteed 2-Day delivery from Amazon didn’t happen overnight. Their process was examined, value-add activities maximized, wastes eliminated, and the customer is positively and directly affected by these actions. We should look at our processes and take the same approach.

If the rule of 80/20 applies (which it always does), this means 80% of your daily work is non-value add. Let’s think about that. Is the customer paying you to read this blog on company time? Is the customer paying you to update that special KPI that doesn’t affect them?

What would happen if you instead focused your efforts directly on what directly impacts the customer, which essentially boils down to our products and lead time? What if you question yourself every day about every task, “Is the customer going to benefit from this change?”

Again, 80% of the time, the customer does not benefit, so why are we continually adding waste and how do we stop? The answer is simple. Stop contributing to non-value-add tasks. Literally, stop! And if you can’t stop, then challenge yourself to reduce the total amount of non value-add tasks (ie. waste) from your process. Reduce the DOWNTIME on every project.

D – Defects. The goal is to eliminate defects and create a disturbance-free or defect-free environment.

O – Over Production. Don’t produce more than the customer requires. Think of a professional football game and all of the food being made to serve fans. Now think about the end of the game and how much food was leftover (i.e. over produced). If 1pc flow was implemented, over producing is kept in check.

W – Waiting. Imagine driving 10 hours to your destination, only to be stuck waiting in traffic for an additional 4 hours. What a waste!

N – Non-Utilized Talent. As a manager or supervisor, it is your duty and privilege to coach employees and tap into your teammates’ talent. Find their passion, coach them to follow their passion, and help them reach their goals. The world needs more do-ers and people executing their abilities to their fullest potential. Talent that is not tapped into is undoubtedly a waste.

T – Transportation. Analyze distance traveled, count how many steps from point A to point B and create a spaghetti diagram to map out the back and forth of a process. Reduce and eliminate accordingly.

I –  Inventory: Inventory gets lost, stolen, breaks, is outdated, etc. Getting to JIT (Just in Time) is the ultimate goal. This means your inventory arrives “just in time” when it is needed by the customer instead of sitting on a shelf.

M – Motion: An Olympic sprinter has perfect form. Any wasted motion does not add value to help him/her win the race. Reduce and eliminate unnecessary motion, twisting, turning, etc.

E – Excessive Processing: Reduce the total touches a product or item is handled, read, etc. Avoid rework!

Now that you are equipped to identify waste in your process, I challenge you to be a change agent in your department to focus on what the customer pays for and reduce or eliminate the tasks the customer does not pay for. It’s difficult and it’s trying, but it’s worth it!

Workers Wanted: Building a Team to Thrive in Industry 4.0

Manufacturers enjoy talking about the new technologies available as we speed ahead to Industry 4.0. And while it is true (very true) that improved technologies and the increase in data those new technologies provide are drivers for success, it is only with the right people in place that business can thrive.

Over the next decade, 4.6 million manufacturing jobs will likely be needed, and 2.4 million are expected to go unfilled due to the skills gap. Moreover, according to a recent report, the lack of qualified talent could take a significant bite out of economic growth, potentially costing as much as $454 billion from manufacturing GDP in 2028 alone. (Source: Deloitte and The Manufacturing Institute)

But this isn’t a future problem. It is today’s problem and it is already negatively impacting the bottom line for many businesses. During the first quarter of 2019, more than 25% of manufacturers had to turn down new business opportunities due to a lack of workers, according to a report from the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM).

Manufacturers need to respond to this issue. NOW. We need to start by changing the perception of what it means to work in smart manufacturing. We need to show potential workers what is happening inside our plants and what a career in manufacturing can look like — good pay, clean facilities, challenging work and advancement opportunities.

We can start this by taking simple steps like participating in Manufacturing Day activities, opening our doors to the public and letting them see what we do. Show them how manufacturing has changed. Manufacturing Day is held the first Friday of October each year to help dispel common misconceptions about manufacturing in a coordinated effort and while it is growing, still not enough businesses are involved.

We can’t solve our labor problems in a day. We also need to embrace new talent pipelines, work with schools to encourage students receive the basic training needed to join our teams, create co-op and intern opportunities, invest in training, and adapt our culture to better appeal to the younger generations we need to join us.

Our younger generations are highly technical. They don’t know of a world without technology and automation. Their ability isn’t the issue.  We need to convince them that they can find success and rewarding careers in manufacturing and then help then gain the skills to become productive members of our teams.

Tracking and Traceability in Mobility: A Step Towards IIoT

In today’s highly competitive automotive environment, it is becoming increasingly important for companies to drive out operating costs in order to ensure their plants maintain a healthy operating profit.

Improved operational efficiency in manufacturing is a goal of numerous measures. For example, in Tier 1 automotive parts manufacturing it is common place to have equipment that is designed to run numerous assemblies through one piece of capital equipment (Flexible Manufacturing). In order to accommodate multiple assemblies, different tooling is designed to be placed in this capital equipment. This reduces required plant floor real-estate and the costs normally required for unidimensional manufacturing equipment. However, with this flexibility new risks are introduced, such as running the machine with incorrect tooling which can cause increased scrap levels, incorrect assembly of parts and/or destruction/damage of expensive tooling, expedited freight, outsourcing costs, increased manpower, sorting and rework costs, and more.

Having operators manually enter recipes or tooling change information introduces the Human Error of Probability (HEP).  “The typical failure rates in businesses using common work practices range from 10 to 30 errors per hundred opportunities. The best performance possible in well managed workplaces using normal quality management methods are failure rates of 5 to 10 in every hundred opportunities.” (Sondalini)

Knowing the frequency of product change-over rates, you can quickly calculate the costs of these potential errors. One means of addressing this issue is to create Smart Tooling whereby RFID tags are affixed on the tooling and read/write antennas are mounted on the machinery and integrated into the control architecture of the capital equipment. The door to a scalable solution has now been opened in which each tool is assigned a unique ID or “license plate” identifying that specific tooling. Through proper integration of the capital equipment, the plant can now identify what tooling is in place at which OP station and may only run if the correct tooling is confirmed in place. In addition, one can then move toward predictive maintenance by placing process data onto the tag itself such as run time, parts produced, and tooling rework data. Collection and monitoring of this data moves the plant towards IIoT and predictive maintenance capabilities to inform key personnel when tooling is near end of life or re-work requirement thus contributing to improved OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) rates.

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For more information on RFID, visit www.balluff.com.

*Source: Mike Sondalini, Managing Director, Lifetime Reliability Solutions, Article: Unearth the answers and solve the causes of human error in your company by understanding the hidden truths in human error rate tables

You have options when it comes to connecting your sensors

When it comes to connecting I/O in factory automation settings, there are many options one can choose to build an efficient and cost-effective system. This is one area where you can reduce costs while also boosting productivity.

Single Ended Cables and Hardwired I/O

It is common in the industry for single ended cables to be run from sensors to a controller input card in a centralized control cabinet. And while this method works, it can be costly for a number of reasons, including:

  • Flying leads on single ended cables are time consuming to prepare and wire
  • Wiring mistakes are often made leading to more time troubleshooting
  • I/O Cards for PLCs are expensive
  • Long cable runs to a centralized location add up quickly especially when dealing with analog devices which require expensive shielded cables
  • Lack of scalability and diagnostics

Double Ended Cables and Networked I/O

Using double ended cables along with network I/O blocks allows for a cost-effective solution to distribute I/O and increase up time. There are numerous benefits that come along with this sort of architecture. Some of these benefits are:

  • Reduced cabling — since I/O is distributed, only network cables need to be run back to the control cabinet reducing cost and cabinet size, and sensor cables are shortened since I/O blocks are machine mounted
  • Quicker build time since standard wiring is less labor intensive
  • Diagnostics allows for quicker trouble shooting, leading to lower maintenance costs and reduced downtime

IO-Link

Using IO-Link delivers all of the strengths of networked I/O as well as additional benefits:

  • I/O Hubs allow for scalability
  • Smart devices can be incorporated into your system
  • Parameterization capability
  • Increased diagnostics from intelligent devices
  • Reduced costs and downtime
  • Increased productivity

Inductive Coupling for non-contact connection

Many people are using inductive coupling technology to provide a non-contact connection for their devices. This method allows you to pass both power and signal across an air gap making it ideal for replacing slip rings or multi-pin connectors in many applications. This provides some great options for industry to gain benefits in these areas such as:

  • Reduced wear since there is no physical connection
  • Faster change over
  • Reduced downtime due to the elimination of damaged connector pins

For more information on connectivity and I/O architecture solutions please visit www.balluff.com.

Diversity in factory automation

This blog was originally posted on the Innovating Automation Blog.

Biodiversity is beneficial not only in biological ecosystems, but in industrial factory automation as well. Diversity helps to limit the effects of unpredictable events.

Typically, in factory automation a control unit collects data from sensors, analyzes this data and, according to its programmed instruction, triggers actuators to a defined operation. In most cases, a single-channel structure consisting of sensor, logic and output perfectly fulfills the application requirements. Yet in some cases two-channel structures are preferred to increase the reliability of the control concept.

Clamping control at machine tool spindles

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To monitor clamping positions of tools in machine tool spindles, several options are possible: Sensors with binary output (e.g. PNP normally open) or sensors with continuous output (e.g. 0..10V or IO-Link) may be installed. The clamping process in many spindles is controlled with hydraulic actuators. This means the clamping force can be controlled by using pressure sensors which control the applied hydraulic pressure in the clamping cylinder.

The combined usage of both position and pressure sensors controls the clamping status in a better manner than using only one sensor principle. Typically, there are three clamping situations: 1) unclamped 2) clamped without object 3) clamped with object. In tooling spindles, the clamped position is usually achieved by using springs which force the mechanics to hold and clamp the object when no pressure is applied. A pneumatic or hydraulic actuator allows the worker to unclamp the object by providing force to overcome the spring load. Without hydraulic or pneumatic pressure, the clamped position should be detected by the position sensor. When enough pressure is being built up, after a short delay, the unclamped position should be achieved. Otherwise something must be wrong.

The advantage of diversity

By using two different sensor principles (in this case pressure sensing and position sensing) the risk of so-called common cause failures is reduced. The probability of concurrent effects of environmental impact on the different sensors is diminished, thereby increasing the detection rate of failures. The machine control can immediately react if the signals of pressure and position sensors do not match, simplifying monitoring of the clamping process.

Why RFID is the VIP of 2019

The “most popular” annual lists don’t usually come out until the end of the year, but I think it is worth mentioning now three applications that have gained substantial momentum this year. With the Smart Factory concept being driven around the globe, RFID has emerged from the shadows and taken its place in the spotlight. The demand for a larger amount of data, more security, and increased visibility into the production process has launched RFID into a leading role when it comes to automation.

Machine Access Control

When considering RFID being utilized for access control, they think about readers located near doorways either outside the building or within the plant. While those readers operate much like the industrial readers, they typically cannot communicate over an industrial communication protocol like Ethernet/IP, Profinet, or IO-Link.  With an industrial access control reader one can limit access to HMIs, PLCs, and various control systems by verifying the user and allowing access to the appropriate controls.  This extra layer of security also ensures operator accountability by identifying the user.

Machine Tool ID

RFID has been used in machining centers for decades. However, it was used mostly in larger scale operations where there were acres of machines and hundreds of tools. Today it’s being used in shops with as few as one machine. The ROI is dependent on the number of tool changes in a shift; not necessarily just the number of machines and the number of tools in the building. The greater the number of tool changes, the greater the risk of data input errors, tool breakage, and even a crash.

Content verification

Since RFID is capable of reading through cardboard and plastic, it is commonly used to verify the contents of a container. Tags are fixed to the critical items in the box, like a battery pack or bag of hardware, and passed through a reader to verify their presence. If, in this case, two tags are not read at the final station then the box can be opened and supplied with the missing part before it ships. This prevents an overload on aftersales support and ensures customers get what they ordered.

While RFID is still widely used to address Work in Process (WIP), asset tracking, and logistics applications, the number of alternative applications involving RFID has skyrocketed due to an increase in demand for actionable data.  Manufacturing organizations around the world have standardized on RFID as a solution in cases where accountability, reliability and quality are critical.

 

Mini Sensors Add Big Capabilities to Life Science Applications

1Miniaturization is one of the essential requirements for medical instruments and laboratory equipment used in the life science industry. As instruments get smaller and smaller, the sensor components must also become smaller, lighter and more flexible. The photoelectric sensors that were commonly used in general automation and applied in life science applications have met their limitations in size and performance.

2.jpgSensors used in these complex applications require numerous special characteristics such as high-quality optics, unique housing designs, precise LEDs with the best suited wavelength and the ability to be extremely flexible to fit in the extremely small space available. Sensors have been developed to meet the smallest possible installation footprint with the highest optical precision and enough flexibility to be installed where they are needed. These use integrated micro-precision optics that shape and focus the light beam exactly on the object without any undesirable side-effects to achieve the reliability demanded in today’s applications.

Previously many life science applications used conventional plastic fiber optic cables that were often too large and not flexible enough to be routed through the instruments. An alternative to the classic fiber cables is a “wired” fiber with precision micro-optics and extremely flexible cables with essentially no minimum bending radius and no significant coupling losses. Similar to a conventional fiber optic sensor, an external amplifier is required to provide a wide variety of functionalities to solve the demanding applications.

These sensors can be used in applications such as:

  • Precise detection of liquid levels using either attenuation or refraction with a small footprint
  • Reliable detection of transparent objects such as microscope slides or coverslips having various edge shapes
  • Detection of transparent liquids in micro-channels or capillaries
  • Reliable detection of individual droplets
  • Recognition of free-floating micro-bubbles in a tube that are smaller than the tube diameter and that cannot be seen by the human eye
  • Recognition of macro-bubbles that are the diameter of small tubes

For more information on photoelectric sensors that have the capability to meet the demands of today’s life science applications visit www.balluff.com.

Make Clear Water Visible to Your Sensors

In some industries such as life sciences it is necessary to detect clear water or clear liquids in a container or tube. This is even more challenging when the diameters of the tube are small, and the tube thickness is nearly as large as the stream of liquid.

The attenuation or gradual reduction of the intensity of the light beam in water and air can be directly compared. The attenuation of light in water can be attributed to light entering water at any angle other than at a right angle and can be refracted. The measurement of light through a tube is different because not only is the light attenuated by the liquid, but depending on where the light passes through the tube it can be refracted, diverted and or focused. As a result, the signal differences can be low.

Attenuation is typically the first choice if the liquids are opaque or colored. The requirements of the shape of the light beam and the alignment of the sensor add more complication to the application. The attenuation effect appears weaker in clear liquids. The principle does not work with reflective sensors since reflection is a surface effect and the light must pass through the liquid.OPTO_appl_08_sw-water

From spectral analysis it’s has been determined that the attenuation characteristics of water are heavily dependent on the wavelength of the light that is conducted through it. Sensors were developed for such applications. Typically, these sensors utilize LED’s in the upper infrared range of 1,450 nm. At this wavelength water literally absorbs the light and becomes opaque making detection more simplified and reliable.

This principle even works for fine capillaries and microchannels. Liquid detection can be very precise depending on the sensor size and the effective light beam. Light beams as small as 0.4mm can provide high resolution for small thin tubes typically found in microfluidics applications.

Versions of these sensors exist for applications that involve less transparent or semi-transparent vessels. Light at the 1450nm wavelength can pass through these containers or tubes and can be attenuated by the water. The main factor is that enough light makes its way through the walls of the container.

Through-beam sensors were developed for applications such as detecting clear liquids. These sensors are also available in extremely small dimensions and usually require an amplifier, or they can be supplied in a rugged fork sensor housing. The required sensor dimensions conform to the geometry of the vessel or container.

For more information on sensors for these types of applications contact your local Balluff representative or contact us at www.balluff.com.

Certification of Equipment in Hazardous Areas

This post was originally published on Innovating-automation.blog.

Industrial processes often need to be carried out in a hazardous atmosphere or when hazardous materials such as explosive gases, dust or flammable liquids are present. Such substances can be ignited by sufficient energy coming from sources like electrical sparks, open flames, and hot surfaces. The equipment installed in these areas must therefore be planned such that it does not represent an ignition source. In most countries around the world, national and/or local governments enact electrical construction standards intended to prevent accidents and enhance the safety of people and property. To ensure that installed components have been designed and tested according to regulations and offer sufficient protection, testing agencies are used. They certify that a particular device meets the specifications of the special standards for hazardous locations.

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Country Certification

There are many types and categories of possible hazards in explosion hazard areas. How these areas are classified depends on in which country or region the equipment is being installed:

  • In the USA the NEC (National Electrical Code) uses two methods for classifying hazardous locations: these are based on both the class/division and the zone. Categorization into class/division is a long proven procedure in the USA. Division into zones is a newer alternate concept which is becoming more and more established. As soon as the decision is made as to which method will be used for certification, that method is consistently applied.
  • Canada is similar to the US but follows the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) electrical codes.
  • In the European Union a harmonization scheme is used to eliminate technical trade barriers. The ATEX Directive 2014/34/EU is applied to devices and protection systems for proper use in explosion hazard areas. As part of a hazard assessment the operator divides the areas into zones and selects devices for the corresponding category.
  • For the rest of the world various local regulations and standards apply. But more and more countries are turning to the uniform global standard IECEx (International Electrotechnical Commission Explosive). It is however possible that a country specifies IECEx as the basic standard while requiring additional national certifications to meet country-specific regulations.

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For a comprehensive overview about the protection classes for electrical devices you may refer to following poster and brochure (including Balluff products for hazardous areas) that can be downloaded from the Balluff Homepage – or ask your Balluff sales representative for a printed version.