Installation and device replacement – easy and safe

The development and design of a machine is followed by the assembly and commissioning phase. Commissioning is especially time consuming, but the replacement of components or devices can be so as well.

This often raises the question of how to simplify commissioning and optimize component replacement.

The answer is provided by the IO-Link communication interface. IO-Link is the first globally standardized IO technology (IEC 61131-9) that communicates from the controller down to the lowest level.

But how exactly does this help with commissioning and component replacement? This is very simple and will be explained now. Let’s start first with the assembly, installation and commissioning phase.

Easy installation

During installation, the individual components must be electrically connected to each other. While fieldbus use has simplified the installation process, generally speaking, fieldbus cables have a low signal level, are susceptible to interference, have little flexibility, and are expensive due to their shielding. This is where IO-Link comes into play. Because the weaknesses of a fieldbus protocol are negligible with IO-Link.

Included in an IO-Link system are an IO-Link master and one or several IO-Link devices such as sensors or actuators. The IO-Link master is the interface to the controller (PLC) and takes over communication with connected IO-Link devices. The interface uses unshielded, three- or four-conductor standard industrial cables. Therefore the standard communication interface can be integrated into the fieldbus world without effort. Even complex components can be easily connected in this way. In addition, the standard industrial cables are highly flexible and suitable for many bending cycles. Three wires are the standard for the communication between the devices and the IO-Link master and for the power supply voltage. These are easy to connect, extremely cost-effective and their connection is standardized with M5, M8 or M12 connectors.

The commissioning will also be supported by IO-Link. The devices can be parameterized quickly and easily through parameter maintenance or duplication. Annoying manual adjustment of the sensors and actuators is no longer necessary. This saves money and avoids errors. The parameters of the individual devices are stored in the PLC or directly in the IO-Link master and can, therefore, be written directly to the sensor.

Now that we have clarified the advantages of IO-Link during commissioning, we will take a look at the replacement of components.

Communication with IO-Link

Save device replacement during operation

A sensor replacement directly leads to machine downtime. IO-Link enables quick and error-free replacement of sensors. The parameters of a replaced IO-Link sensor are automatically written from the IO-Link master or the PLC to the new sensor. The accessibility of the sensor does not play a major role anymore. In addition, IO-Link devices cannot be mixed up, since they are automatically identifiable via IO-Link.

Efficient format and recipe changes

IO-Link offers ideal properties that are predestined for format adjustment: sufficient speed, full access to all parameters, automatic configuration, and absolute transmission of the measured values. This eliminates the need for time-consuming reference runs. Since the machine control remains permanently traceable, the effort required for error-prone written paper documentation is also saved. Format changes and recipe changes can be carried out centrally via the function blocks of the PLC.

To learn more about the advantages of IO-Link, visit balluff.us/io-link.

 

Everything You Need to Know to be Successful at IIoT

Do you need to quickly ramp up your IIoT knowledge? Do you want to know why manufacturers are investing in IIoT? For years this blog has shared many of the individual values that smart manufacturing, Industry 4.0 and the Industrial Internet of Things can bring to manufacturers. I am going to quickly summarize the key findings and provide links to the full entries so you can easily have at your fingertips all of the advice you need to be successful at IIoT.

  • Industry 4.0 & IIoT, who cares?!?! You should. Even in 2016, IIoT investments were rapidly growing and more than a fifth of technology budgets were being invested in data analytics, IIoT and Industry 4.0. This has not slowed down in 2018!
  • 5 Common IIoT Mistakes and How to Avoid Them. The first point is the best point, every IIoT project that ignores the IT department is doomed for failure. IT & OT must work closely together for a successful data project in the factory.
  • Capture vs Control – The Hidden Value of True IIoT Solutions. In automation, everything seems to revolve around the PLC. This is very much an Industry 3.0 way of thinking. As we take on the next industrial revolution, devices can talk to each other in new and incredible ways, and we can capture data without impacting a working production line or modifying PLC code.
  • JSON Objects and How They Can Streamline an IIoT Application. How the data is captured is important to understand when you are ready to take action and implement your first project. By utilizing web tools like JSON, we can effectively capture data for IIoT applications.
  • What does that “Ready for IIoT” tag really mean? But how do I select a device that is going to be actually ready for IIoT? Features like condition monitoring, automatic configuration and scalability make for robust IIoT projects that can stand the test of time.

When you are convinced and ready to take action on an IIoT project kickoff for an Industry 4.0 team, take a look at the blogs below which can help you make an action plan for success and get buy-in from management.

  • How to Balance the IIoT Success Equation. What should you and your team be focusing on? How do we set a strategy, manage data, and take action to run a successful project? All of these need to be in balance and planned for to have long term vitality in your IIoT investments.
  • How do I justify an IIoT investment to my boss? We can show ROI through reduced downtime, by tying our project to corporate goals of productivity or utilization and you can point out that your competitors are heavily investing in this topic.
  • Enabling the Visibility Provided by the Industrial Internet of Things. And last but not least, there is a seriously strong technology available on the market from virtually every automation vendor that enables and scales IIoT like no other. That technology is IO-Link. With IO-Link you can create visibility down to every sensor in the plant and gain the flexibility and reliability that you need for sustainable competitiveness in the global market.

To learn more about IO-Link and how it enables machine builders and manufacturers to be successful with IIoT, check out this interactive infographic.

Maintain Machine Up-Time with Application-Specific Cables

Using high-durability cables in application environments with high temperatures, weld spatter, or washdown areas improves manufacturing machine up-time.

It is important to choose a cable that matches your specific application requirements.

Washdown Applications

When a food and beverage customer needs to wash down their equipment after a production shift, a standard cable is likely to become a point of failure. A washdown-specific cable with an IP68/IP69 rating is designed to withstand high-pressure cleaning. It’s special components, such as an internal O-ring and stainless-steel connection nut, keep water and cleaners from leaking.

Welding Applications

Welding environments require application-specific cables to deal with elevated temperatures, tight bend radiuses and weld spatter. Cables with a full silicone jacket prevent the build-up of debris, which can cause shorts and failures over time.

High Temperature cables

Applications with high temperatures require sensors that can operate reliably in their environment. The same goes for the cables. High temperature cables include added features such as a high temperature jacket and insulation materials specifically designed to perform in these applications.

Cables

Selecting the correct cable for a specific application area is not difficult when you know the requirements the application environment demands and incorporate those demands into your choice. It’s no different than selecting the best sensor for the job. The phrase to remember is “application specificity.”

For more information on standard and high-durability cables, please visit www.balluff.com.

 

Back to the Basics: IO-Link

In the last post about the Basics of Automation, we learned how distances, travel, angles and pressures can be measured contactlessly, whether linear or rotary. In this blog, let’s take a closer look at IO-Link technology.

Throughout the history of manufacturing, as the level of automation increased, the demand for intelligent field devices grew. A variety of interfaces with different mechanical and electrical characteristics were created, and the need for standardization grew. The cooperative work of several companies developed the viable solution. Like  USB in the PC world, IO-Link in automation leads to a considerable simplification of installation with simultaneously extended diagnostics and parameterization capability.

IO-Link 1

It’s a worldwide standardized I/O technology according to IEC 61131-9, in order to communicate from the control to the lowest level of automation. The universal interface is a fieldbus independent point-to-point connection that works with an unshielded industrial cable. The IO-Link Community founded in 2006, consisting of leading automation manufacturers, promotes IO-Link with the acronym “”USE””:

  • Universal – IO-Link is an international standard (IEC 61131-9)
  • Smart – IO-Link enables diagnostics and parameter-setting of devices
  • Easy – IO-Link provides great simplification and cost reduction

System Components

IO-Link master
Also mentioned as the heart of the IO-Link installation, it communicates with the controller via the respective fieldbus as well as downward using IO-Link to the sensor/actuator level.

Sensors and Actuators
The IO-Link capable intelligent sensors and actuators are connected directly to the IO-Link master via IO-Link. This enables the simplest installation, the best signal quality, parameterization and diagnostics.

Hubs
The sensor/actuator hub exchanges signals with the binary and/or analog sensors and actuators and communicates with the IO-Link master.

IO-Link 2

To learn more about the Basics of Automation, visit www.balluff.com.

IO-Link vs. Analog in Measurement Applications

IO-Link is well-suited for use in measurement applications that have traditionally used analog (0…10V or 4…20mA) signals. This is thanks in large part to the implementation of IO-Link v1.1, which provides faster data transmission and increased bandwidth compared to v1.0. Here are three areas where IO-Link v1.1 excels in comparison to analog.

1

Fewer data errors, at lower cost

By nature, analog signals are susceptible to interference caused by other electronics in and around the equipment, including motors, pumps, relays, and drives. Because of this, it’s almost always necessary to use high-quality, shielded cables to transmit the signals back to the controller. Shielded cables are expensive and can be difficult to work with. And even with them in place, signal interference is a common issue that is difficult to troubleshoot and resolve.

2

With IO-Link, measurements are converted into digital values at the sensor, before transmission. Compared to analog signals, these digital signals are far less susceptible to interference, even when using unshielded 4-wire cables which cost about half as much as equivalent shielded cables. The sensor and network master block (Ethernet/IP, for example) can be up to 20 meters apart. Using industry-standard connectors, the possibility for wiring errors is virtually eliminated.

3

Less sensor programming required

An analog position sensor expresses a change in position by changing its analog voltage or current output. However, a change of voltage or current does not directly represent a unit of measurement. Additional programming is required to apply a scaling factor to convert the change in voltage or current to a meaningful engineering unit like millimeters or feet.

It is often necessary to configure analog sensors when they are being installed, changing the default characteristics to suit the application. This is typically performed at the sensor itself and can be fairly cumbersome. When a sensor needs to be replaced, the custom configuration needs to be repeated for the replacement unit, which can prolong expensive machine downtime.

IO-Link sensors can also be custom configured. Like analog sensors, this can be done at the sensor, but configuration and parameterization can also be performed remotely, through the network. After configuration, these custom parameters are stored in the network master block and/or offline. When an IO-Link sensor is replaced, the custom parameter data can be automatically downloaded to the replacement sensor, maximizing machine uptime.

Diagnostic data included

A major limitation of traditional analog signals is that they provide process data (position, distance, pressure, etc.) without much detail about the device, the revision, the manufacturer, or fault codes. In fact, a reading of 0 volts in a 0-10VDC interface could mean zero position, or it could mean that the sensor has ceased to function. If a sensor has in fact failed, finding the source of the problem can be difficult.

With IO-Link, diagnostic information is available that can help resolve issues quickly. As an example, the following diagnostics are available in an IO-Link magnetostrictive linear position sensor: process variable range overrun, measurement range overrun, process variable range underrun, magnet number change, temperature (min and max), and more.

4

This sensor level diagnostic information is automatically transmitted and available to the network, allowing immediate identification of sensor faults without the need for time-consuming troubleshooting to identify the source of the problem.

To learn about the variety of IO-Link measurement sensors available, read the Automation Insights post about ways measurement sensors solve common application challenges. For more information about IO-Link and measurement sensors, visit www.balluff.com.

A Gap Opens for Magnetic Linear Encoders

Innovation sometimes explodes onto the scene as a disruptive technology. More often, though, it arrives quietly in the form of continuous improvement that enhances performance and expands the scope of application capabilities. Sometimes evolutionary improvements are subtle, but once in a while they are game-changing.

When it comes to magnetic linear encoders, there have been steady improvements over the years in terms of resolution and linearity, enabling them to replace optical linear encoders in many applications at a fraction of the cost. One stubborn limitation, however, has been the trade-off between measuring performance and tape-to-sensor gap distance, sometimes called simply the gap distance or the ride height. Generally speaking, the higher the resolution and/or linearity specification, the smaller the allowable gap distance or ride height becomes. This reduction in ride height requires a corresponding tightening of machine tolerances in order to ensure that the maximum allowable gap distance is not exceeded.

Magnetic linear encoder

Recent breakthroughs in magnetic encoder design and technology have resulted in a new class of linear encoder systems that offer greatly expanded ride height. For example, an incremental system with 1 μm resolution and a system accuracy of ± 10 μm required a typical maximum tape-to-sensor gap distance of 0.35 mm. Now, the new generation of encoder technology can deliver the same 1 μm resolution and a similar ± 12 μm system accuracy, but with a maximum gap distance of 1.0 mm, nearly a threefold increase in ride height. That means far better tolerance of variability in the gap distance as the machine goes through its motions.

What’s more, encoder functionality can be assured even when the gap distance increases to as much as 1.8 mm, albeit with some loss of accuracy at these extreme distances. The ability to tolerate expanded variation in ride height ensures that machine operation will not be disrupted by loss of the encoder signal, even when gap tolerances occasionally exceed design maximums. That translates directly into greater design freedom for the engineer, and more machine uptime with fewer nuisance stoppages for the end user.

To learn more about the new generation of magnetic linear encoders, visit www.balluff.com.

 

Technological Alternative to Fiber Optics

Photoelectric applications with space restrictions, small part detection, high temperatures, or aggressive harsh environments may be solved using fiber optic sensors. These sensors allow the electronics to be mounted out of harm’s way while at the same time focusing the light beam on a small target. The sensing tips can be manufactured in a wide variety of housings for unique mounting requirements.

Fiber optic sensors require two components: a remote mounted amplifier, and the fiber optic cable(s). The amplifiers can be basic, with few features, or advanced with many configurable options and digital displays. The fiber optic cables are made of either plastic or glass fibers, each with advantages and application specific solutions.

Many applications, primarily those in the medical Technological Alternative to Fiber Optics 1sciences and semiconductor industries, cannot be solved with fiber optic or miniature photoelectric sensors because they are physically too large to fit in the instruments. Additionally, the cables are typically not flexible enough to be routed through the instruments.  Today, highly flexible and miniature sensors are are being incorporated in other industries due to today’s demands of smaller machines and tools.

MICROmote® sensors are miniaturized photoelectric Technological Alternative to Fiber Optics 2sensors with separate amplifiers that are also available with a variety of functionalities. Their highly flexible, electric sensor cables make them a genuine technical alternative to conventional fiber optics. The photoelectric sensor heads have extraordinarily small dimensions, excellent technical characteristics, and outstanding flexibility for application-specific solutions.

Similar to fiber optic sensors, these micro-optic photoelectric sensors function as either a through-beam or diffuse type sensor with comparable sensing ranges. Unlike fibers, the wired sensing heads are inherently bifurcated type cables so that there is only one connection to the amplifier.

Unlike conventional fiber optic cables,Technological Alternative to Fiber Optics 3 there are no significant coupling losses, minimum bending radius and cyclic bending stresses.  The patented precision elements produce extremely small beam angles with sharply defined light spots unlike standard fiber optics where the beam angle is a function of the fiber geometry.  Additional lenses must be used if the light beam of a fiber optic cable must be focused which adds to the costs.

MICROmote® photoelectric sensors for water detection use a specific wavelength at which water absorbs more light. This significantly simplifies the detection of liquids with high water content using optical sensors. The combination of an ultra-compact design and powerful micro-optics allows for reliable use in capillary tubes where other sensing devices are stretched to their limits.

These sensors can also be used as precision tube Technological Alternative to Fiber Optics 4sensors for detecting bubbles through use of either light refraction or attenuation through the air, or liquid column within the tube. They provide excellent detection for even the smallest air-to-liquid transitions and are reliable for all liquid types, even clear liquids.

In addition, these sensorsTechnological Alternative to Fiber Optics 5 are designed to detect free-floating microbubbles in transparent liquids. Microbubbles refer to little gas bubbles with dimensions smaller than the inside diameter of the tube. Uniform lighting is achieved in the liquid column by using a concentrated arrangement of multiple light beams with very uniform intensity distribution. Gas bubbles that move through this field induce a signal jump in the built-in photoelectric receiver elements

For more information on this technological alternative to fiber optics visit www.balluff.com.

The Evolution of RFID in Metalworking

RFID – A key technology in modern production

It’s not just IIoT that has focused attention on RFID as a central component of automation. As a key technology, radio frequency identification has been long established in production. The inductive operating principle guarantees ruggedness and resistance to environmental stress factors. This makes the system highly reliable in function and operation. With unlimited read/write cycles and real-time communication, RFID has become indispensable. The beginnings for the industrial use of RFID go far back. RFID was first successfully used on machine tools in the mid-1980’s. Since the usage of RFID tags on cutting tool holders has been internationally standardized (ISO 7388 for SK shanks, ISO12164 for HSK shanks), there has been strong growth of RFID usage in cutting tool management.

Cutting tool in tool taper with RFID chip

Track-and-trace of workpieces

Modern manufacturing with a wide bandwidth of batch sizes and ever compressed production times demands maximum transparency. This is the only way to meet the high requirements for flexibility and quality, and to minimize costs. Not only do the tools need to be optimally managed, but also the finished parts and materials used must be unambiguously recognized and assigned.

Workpiece tracking with RFID on pallet system

RFID frequencies LF and HF – both RFID worlds come together

In terms of data transmission for cutting tool identification, established systems have settled on LF (Low Frequency), as this band has proven to be especially robust and reliable in metal surroundings. Data is read with LF at a frequency of 455 kHz and written at 70 kHz.

When it comes to intralogistics and tracking of workpieces, HF (High Frequency) has become the standard in recent years. This is because HF systems with a working frequency of 13.56 MHz offer greater traverse speeds and a more generous read/write distance.

As a result, RFID processor units have been introduced that offer frequency-independent application. By using two different read-/write heads (one for tool identification and one for track-and-trace of workpieces) that each interface to a single processor unit, the communication to the control system is achieved in an economical manner.

RFID processor for both tool identification and workpiece tracking

New Hybrid Read-Write Head

Industrial equipment is designed for a working life of 20 years or even more. Therefore, in production you often find machines which were designed in the last century next to new machines that were installed when the production capacity was enlarged. In such a brown field factory you have the coexistence of proven technology and modern innovative equipment. For the topic of industrial RFID, it means that both low frequency and high frequency RFID tags are used. To use both the existing infrastructure and to introduce modern and innovative equipment, RFID read/write heads have been recently developed with LF and HF technology in one housing. It does not matter whether a LF RFID tag or a HF RFID tag approaches the RFID head. The system will automatically detect whether the tag uses LF or HF technology and will start to communicate in the right frequency.

This hybrid read-write head adds flexibility to the machine tools and tool setters as you can use the entire inventory of your cutting tools and tool holders.

RFID Tool ID tag ready for the Cloud

The classical concept of data storage in Tool ID is a decentralized data storage, which means that all relevant data (tool dimensions, tool usage time, machining data, etc.) of a tool/tool holder is stored on the RFID tag which is mounted on the single tool holder. The reliability and availability of this concept data has been proven for more than 25 years now.

With the Internet of Things IIOT, the concept of cloud computing is trendy. All — tool setter, machine tool and tool stock systems — are connected to the cloud and exchange data. In this case only an identifier is needed to move and receive the data to and from the cloud. For this type of data management Tool ID tags with the standard (DIN 69873) size diameter 10 x 4,5 mm are available now in a cost effective version with a 32 Byte memory.

Evergreen – more modern than ever: RFID Tool ID in Metalworking

Learn more about the Evolution of RFID in Metalworking from true experts at www.balluff.com  or at  Balluff events worldwide

Robot Collaborative Operation

In previous blogs, we discussed how “Safety Over IO-Link Helps Enable Human-Robot Collaboration” and “Safety & Productivity”. We’ll build on these blogs and dive more deeply into two robot collaborative operating modes: Safety-Rated Monitored Stop (SRMS) and Speed & Separation Monitoring (SSM).

Human-Robot Collaboration

Human-robot collaboration has received a lot of attention in the media, yet there is still confusion about the meaning and benefits of various types of collaboration. In a previous blog we briefly discussed the four collaborative modes defined by the global standard ISO/TS 15066. The most well-known mode is “power & force limiting”, which includes robots made by Universal Robots and Rethink. As the name implies, these robots are designed with limited power and force (and other ergonomic factors) to avoid injury or damage, but they are also slower, less precise and less powerful than traditional robots, reducing their usefulness in many common applications.

Tom K Blog

The safety-rated monitored stop (SRMS) and speed & separation monitoring (SSM) modes are very interesting because they allow larger, more powerful, traditional robots to be used collaboratively — though in a different manner than power & force limited robots. The updated standards allow the creation of a shared workspace for the robot and human and define how they may interact in this space. Both SRMS and SSM require this shared workspace to be monitored using advanced safety sensors and software, which create a restricted space and a safeguarded space. With SRMS, the robot stops before the operator enters the collaborative workspace — this requires a safety sensor to detect the operator.  Similarly, in SSM the goal is to control the separation distance between the human and robot, but it can be dynamic, rather than static as in SRMS. The SRMS separation distance can never be less than the protective distance and this requires sensors to verify the separation.

Spaces

The robot’s restricted space is a 3-dimensional area created to limit where the robot can operate. In the past this was done through limit switches, hard stops or sensors such as Balluff’s BNS; now the standards have been updated to allow this to be done in software with internal robot feedback that can dynamically change to adapt to the robot’s programmed operation. The robot controller can now restrict the robot’s motion to a specific envelope and monitor its actual position against its programmed position within this envelope using software tools such as Safe Move or Dual Check Safety.

The safeguarded space is defined and monitored using safety sensors. The robot might know and assure its own safe position within the restricted space, but it doesn’t know whether or not a person or obstruction is in this space, therefore a safeguarded space needs to be created using safety sensors. Advanced sensors not only detect people or obstructions, but can also actively track their position around the robot and send warning or stop signals to the safety controller and robot. Safety laser scanners, 3D safety cameras and other safety sensors can create zones, which can also be dynamically switched depending on the operating state of the robot or machine.

Closely coordinating the restricted space and safeguarded space creates a flexible and highly productive system. The robot can operate in one zone, while an operator loads/unloads in a different zone. The robot sensors monitor the restricted space while the safety sensors monitor the safeguarded space – and when the robot moves to the next phase of operation, these can dynamically switch to new zones. Warning zones can also be defined to cause the robot to slow down if someone starts to approach too closely and then stop if the person comes too close.

Blog_graphic_Safe-space_081718-01

System Linkages

Linking the restricted space and safeguarded space to create an effective, closely coordinated human-robot SSM/SRMS collaborative system requires several elements: a high performance robot and controller with advanced software (e.g. Safe Move), a fieldbus and a variety of built-in and external sensors (standard and safety).

Significant growth in robot collaborative applications utilizing safety-rated monitored stop (SRMS) and speed & separation monitoring (SSM) will occur as robot users strive to improve productivity and safety of traditional robot systems – especially in applications requiring faster speed, higher force and more precision than that offered by power & force limited robots.

Set your sights on IO-Link for machine vision products

While IO-Link is well addressed in an automated production environment, some have overlooked the benefits IO-Link can deliver for machine vision products.

PLC Gateway-Modus

Any IO-Link device can be connected and controlled by the PLC via fieldbus interface. Saving installation costs and controlling and running IO-Link components are the key values. All the well-known IO-Link benefits apply.

Rainer1

Camera-Modus – without PLC

However, with IO-Link that operates in this mode, the IO-Link-interfaces Rainer2are directly controlled. IO-Link I/O-Modules are automatically detected, configured and controlled.

In a stand-alone situation where an optical inspectionRainer3 of a component is performed without PLC, the operator delivers the component, hits a trigger button, the SmartCamera checks for completeness of production quality, sends a report to a separate customer server, and controls directly via IO-Link interface the connected vision product.

For more information about machine vision and optical identification see www.balluff.com