Tire Manufacturing – IO-Link is on a Roll

Everyone working in the mobility industry knows that the tire manufacturing process is divided up into five areas throughout a large manufacturing plant.

    1. Mixing
    2. Tire prep
    3. Tire build
    4. Curing and molds
    5. Final inspection

Naturally,  conveyors, material handling, and AGV processes throughout the whole plant.

All of these areas have opportunities for IO-Link components, and there are already some good success stories for some of these processes using IO-Link.

A major opportunity for IO-Link can be found in the curing press area. Typically, a manufacturing plant will have about 75 – 100 dual cavity curing presses, with larger plants having  even more. On these tire curing presses are many inputs and outputs in analog signals. These signals can be comprised of pressure switches, sensors, pneumatic, hydraulic, linear positioning, sensors in safety devices, thermo-couples and RTD, flow and much more.

IO-Link provides the opportunity to have all of those inputs, outputs and analog devices connected directly to an IO-Link master block and hub topography. This makes it not only easier to integrate all of those devices but allows you to easily integrate them into your PLC controls.

Machine builders in this space who have already integrated IO-Linked have discovered how much easier it is to lay out their machine designs, commission the machines, and decrease their costs on machine build time and installations.

Tire manufacturing plants will find that the visual diagnostics on the IO-Link masters and hubs, as well as alarms and bits in their HMIs, will quickly help them troubleshoot device problems. This decreases machine downtime and delivers predictive maintenance capabilities.

Recently a global tire manufacturer getting ready to design the curing presses for a new plant examined the benefits of installing IO-Link and revealed a cost savings of more than $10,000 per press. This opened their eyes to evaluating IO-Link technology even more.

Tire Manufacturing is a perfect environment to present IO-Link products. Many tire plants are looking to upgrade old machines and add new processes, ideal conditions for IO-Link. And all industries are interested in ways to stretch their budget.

 

Reduce Packaging Downtime with Machine Vision

Packaging encompasses many different industries and typically has several stages in its process. Each industry uses packaging to accomplish specific tasks, well beyond just acting as a container for a product. The pharmaceutical industry for example, typically uses its packaging as a means of dispensing as well as containing. The food and beverage industry uses packaging as a means of preventing contamination and creating differentiation from similar products. Consumer goods typically require unique product containment methods and have a need for “eye-catching” differentiation.

The packaging process typically has several stages. For example, you have primary packaging where the product is first placed in a package, whether that is form-fill-seal bagging or bottle fill and capping. Then secondary packaging that the consumer may see on the shelf, like cereal boxes or display containers, and finally tertiary packaging or transport packaging where the primary or secondary packaging is put into shipping form. Each of these stages require verification or inspection to ensure the process is running properly, and products are properly packaged.

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Discrete vs. Vision-Based Error Proofing

With the use of machine vision technology, greater flexibility and more reliable operation of the packaging process can be achieved. Typically, in the past and still today, discrete sensors have been used to look for errors and manage product change-over detection. But with these simple discrete sensing solutions come limitations in flexibility, time consuming fixture change-overs and more potential for errors, costing thousands of dollars in lost product and production time. This can translate to more expensive and less competitively priced products on the store selves.

There are two ways implementing machine vision can have a benefit toward improving the scheduled line time. The first is reducing planned downtime by reducing product change over and fixturing change time. The other is to decrease unplanned downtime by catching errors right away and dynamically rejecting them or bringing attention to line issues requiring correction and preventing waste. The greatest benefit vision can have for production line time is in reducing the planned downtime for things like product changeovers. This is a repeatable benefit that can dramatically reduce operating costs and increase the planned runtime. The opportunities for vision to reduce unplanned downtime could include the elimination of line jams due to incorrectly fed packaging materials, misaligned packages or undetected open flaps on cartons. Others include improperly capped bottles causing jams or spills and improper adjustments or low ink causing illegible labeling and barcodes.

Cost and reliability of any technology that improves the packaging process should always be proportional to the benefit it provides. Vision technologies today, like smart cameras, offer the advantages of lower costs and simpler operation, especially compared to the older, more expensive and typically purpose-built vision system counterparts. These new vision technologies can also replace entire sensor arrays, and, in many cases, most of the fixturing at or even below the same costs, while providing significantly greater flexibility. They can greatly reduce or eliminate manual labor costs for inspection and enable automated changeovers. This reduces planned and unplanned downtime, providing longer actual runtime production with less waste during scheduled operation for greater product throughput.

Solve Today’s Packaging Challenges

Using machine vision in any stage of the packaging process can provide the flexibility to dramatically reduce planned downtime with a repeatable decrease in product changeover time, while also providing reliable and flexible error proofing that can significantly reduce unplanned downtime and waste with examples like in-line detection and rejection to eliminate jams and prevent product loss. This technology can also help reduce or eliminate product or shipment rejection by customers at delivery. In today’s competitive market with constant pressure to reduce operating costs, increase quality and minimize waste, look at your process today and see if machine vision can make that difference for your packaging process.

Why In-Die sensing is a must

Metalforming suppliers are facing unprecedented challenges in today’s marketplace. As capital becomes scarce, and competition for business increases, the impact of a die crash or production run of bad parts could make the difference in whether they survive. Companies must protect their most critical assets, the presses and dies. Presses, dies, and various press room automation systems are the lifeblood of the supplier, and their costs can run into multiple millions of dollars in capital investment.

Sensor-driven error-proofing and die protection programs reduce downtime, ensure production is maximized, and prevent costly capital equipment repairs. Sensor implementation can prevent most die crashes and defective parts production if utilized correctly.

The vast majority of expensive press and die damage occurs due to failure to implement or the misapplication of sensing devices through a die protection program. There is a relatively inexpensive way for metal formers to protect their most critical assets in terms of dollar value and revenue creation. Stamping companies need to focus on two main areas to reduce costly repairs and production:

Feed-in and feed-through: You have to ensure the metal is in the press before the start of the cycle, and that it is feeding through properly. Once the cycle has completed, you must make sure the finished part is out of the stamping area. The type of stamping you do will determine the various points where you will need to incorporate sensors.

Part and slug ejection: During the stamping process, scrap material will be left that needs to be removed before the next cycle. Failure to ensure this will leave material inside the press, which can affect product quality or cause significant damage to the press, die, or both.

There are multiple additional processes within the press operation that can improve overall operational efficiency, but the two above should be the first steps toward implementing a successful program.

Multiple sensing devices can help you meet these requirements as well as a variety of suppliers and options you can choose from. It is essential that your personnel are trained on the various sensor technologies, and you are aligned with a supplier that understands the industry, your processes, and the variety of dies and materials you produce.

Many suppliers can provide you with sensing parts, but only a few are industry experts and can serve as both a consultant and parts supplier. You may need to invest a little more to get the expertise necessary to implement a sensing program upfront. Still, it will pay dividends for years to come if you focus upfront on the products that will reduce the downtime related to premature component failure or misapplication of sensor components.

Also, since most suppliers outsource the design and build of their dies, it is critical that your sensor solution partner is involved in new die design, with both your internal team as well as your die supplier. In addition, successful die protection programs entail rigid specifications for die sensing to help reduce their spare parts footprint and maximize the performance of their sensing devices.

 

Mobile Equipment Manufacturers: Is It Time to Make the Switch to Inductive Position Sensors?

Manufacturers of mobile equipment are tasked with the never-ending pursuit of making their machines more productive while adhering to the latest safety regulations, and all at less cost. To help achieve these goals, machines today use electronic control modules to process inputs and provide outputs that ultimately control the machine functions. Yet with all the changes in recent years, one component left over from that earlier era remains in regular use — the mechanical switch.  Switches offered a variety of levers, rollers, and wands for actuation, and many were sealed for an IP67 rating for outdoor use, but they came with an array of problems, including damaged levers, contact corrosion, arcing concerns, dirt or grain dust ingress, and other environmental hazards. Still, overall they were an acceptable and inexpensive way to receive position feedback for on/off functions.

Today, mechanical switches can still be found on machines used for boom presence, turret location, and other discrete functions. But are they the right product for today’s machines?

The original design parameters may have required the switch to drive the load directly, and therefore a rating of 10A@240V might be a good design choice for the relay/diode logic circuits of the past. But a newly designed machine may be switching mere milliamps through the switch into the control module. Does the legacy switch have the proper contact plating material for the load today? Switches use rare metals such as rhodium, palladium, platinum, gold, and silver in attempts to keep the contact resistance low and to protect those contacts from corrosion. Consequently, as China pursues Nonroad Stage IV standards, these metals, some also used in catalytic converters, have sharply increased in price, leading to substantial cost increases to switch manufacturers and ultimately switch users.

A better approach to position feedback for today’s mobile machines is the inductive position sensor. Inductive sensors offer a sealed, non-contact alternative to mechanical switches. Sensing ferrous and non-ferrous metals without physical contact, they eliminate many of the field problems of the past, and non-metallic substances such as water, dirt, and grain dust, do not affect the operation. These qualities make the sensor very suitable for the harsh conditions found in agricultural and construction environments.

Inductive proximity sensors come in a variety of form factors:

Threaded cylindrical – With zinc-plated brass or stainless-steel housings, the threaded barrel styles are popular for their ease of mounting and gap adjustment.  

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Low profile rectangular – These “flatpack” style sensors are great under seats for operator presence.

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Block designs – The compact, cubed package is ideal for larger sensing ranges.

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Large cylindrical – These large “pancake” style sensors are great for detecting suspension movements and other applications requiring extreme ranges.

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Inductive position sensors are more than just a discrete product used for detecting linkage, operator presence, or turret stops; They can also perform the duties of a speed sensor by counting teeth (or holes) to determine the RPM of a rotating shaft. Other models offer analog outputs to provide a continuous feedback signal based on the linear location of a metal linkage or lever. Safety rated outputs, high temperatures, and hazardous area options are some of the many product variants available with this electromagnetic technology.
So, perhaps it’s time to review that legacy switch and consider an inductive sensor?
To learn how an inductive position sensor performs its magic, please take a look at an earlier blog:

Basic Operating Principle of an Inductive Proximity Sensor

Error Proof Stamping Applications with Pressure Sensors

When improving product quality or production efficiency, manufacturing engineers typically turn to automation solutions to error proof and improve their application. In stamping applications, that often leads to adding sensors to help detect the presence of a material or a feature in a part being formed, for example, a hole in a part. In the stamping world, this can be referred to as “In-Die Sensing” or “Die Protection.” The term “Die Protection” is used because if the sensors do not see the material in the correct location when forming, then it could cause a die crash. The cost of a die crash can add up quickly. Not only is there lost production time, but also damage to the die that can be extremely costly to repair. Typically, several sensors are used throughout the die to look for material or features in the material at different locations, to make sure the material is present to protect the die. Manufacturing engineers tend to use photoelectric and/or inductive proximity sensors in these applications; however, pressure sensors are a cost-effective and straightforward alternative.

In today’s stamping applications, manufacturing engineers want to stamp parts faster while reducing downtime and scrap. One growing trend in press shops is the addition of nitrogen on the dies. By adding nitrogen-filled gas springs and/or nitrogen gas-filled lifters, the press can run faster and cycle parts through quicker.

Typically, the die is charged with nitrogen before the press starts running parts. Today, many stamping plants rely on an analog dial gauge (image 1) to determine if there is sufficient nitrogen pressure to operate safely. When a new die is set in the press, someone must look at the gauge and make sure it is correct before running the press. There is no type of signal or feedback from this gauge to the PLC or the press; therefore, no real error proofing method is in place to notify the operator if the pressure rating is correct or even present before starting the press. If the operator starts running the press without any nitrogen for the springs, then it will not cycle the material and can cause a crash.

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Another, likely more significant problem engineers face is a hole forming in one of the hoses while they are running. A very small hole in a hose may not be noticeable to the operator and may not even show up on the analog dial gauge. Without this feedback from the gauge, the press will continue to run and increase the likelihood that the parts will be stamped and be out of specification, causing unnecessary scrap. Scrap costs can be quite large and grow larger until the leak is discovered. Additionally, if the material cannot move through the press properly because of a lack of nitrogen pressure to the springs or lifters, it could cause material to back up and cause a crash.

By using a pressure sensor, you can set high and low pressure settings that will give an output when either of those is reached. The outputs can be discrete, analog, or IO-Link, and they can be tied to your PLC to trigger an alarm for the operator, send an alert to the HMI, or even stop the press. You can also have the PLC make sure pressure is present before starting the press to verify it was adequately charged with nitrogen during set up.

Adding an electronic pressure sensor to monitor the nitrogen pressure is a simple and cost-effective way to error proof this application and avoid costly problems.

How Cameras Keep Tire Manufacturers From Spinning Their Wheels

Tires being transported between the curing presses and the staging area before their final inspection often become clustered together. This jam up can cause imperfections to the tires and damage to the conveyors. To alleviate this problem, some tire manufacturers have installed vision systems on their conveyors to provide visual feedback to their production and quality teams, and alert them when the tires start to get too close together.

A vision system can show you alerts back in your HMI by using inputs and outputs built into the camera or use an IO-Link port on the camera to attach a visual display, for example a SmartLight with audible and flashing alerts enabled. Once you see these alerts, the PLC can easily fix the issue from the program or a maintenance worker or engineer can quickly respond to the alert.

Widespread use of smart vision cameras with various pixel options has become a trend in tire manufacturing. In additional to giving an early alert to bunching problems, vision systems can also capture pictures and data to verify that tires were cleared all the way into final inspection. Although tire machine builders are being asked to incorporate vision systems into their machines during the integration process, it is more likely for systems to be added in plants at the application level.

Vision systems can improve production throughput, quality issues and record production data about the process for analytics and analysis down the road. Remember a tire plant usually consists of these processes in their own large section of the plant and involves many machines in each section:

  • Mixing
  • Tire Prep
  • Tire Build
  • Curing
  • Final Inspection

Each one of these process areas in a plant can benefit from the addition of vision systems. Here are a few examples:

  • Mixing areas can use cameras as they mill rubber and detect when rubber sheets are off the rollers and to look for engraved information embedded in the rubber material for logistics and material flow to the proper processes.
  • Tire Prep can use cameras to ensure all the different strand colors of steel cords are embedded or painted on the rubber plies before going to tire build process.
  • Tire Build can use vision to detect the side-wall beads are facing the right direction and reading the embedded position arrows on the beads before tire plies are wrapped around them.
  • Curing area can use vision to monitor tire clusters on conveyors and make sure they are not too close to each other by using the measuring tool in the camera software.
  • Final Inspection can use vision to read barcodes, QR codes, detect colors of embossed or engraved serial numbers, detect different color markings and shape of the markings on the tire.

The use of machine vision systems can decrease quality issues by pinpointing errors before they make it through the entire production process without detection.

Top 5 Insights from 2019

With a new year comes new innovation and insights. Before we jump into new topics for 2020, let’s not forget some of the hottest topics from last year. Below are the five most popular blogs from our site in 2019.

1. How to Select the Best Lighting Techniques for Your Machine Vision Application

How to select the best vision_LI.jpgThe key to deploying a robust machine vision application in a factory automation setting is ensuring that you create the necessary environment for a stable image.  The three areas you must focus on to ensure image stability are: lighting, lensing and material handling.  For this blog, I will focus on the seven main lighting techniques that are used in machine vision applications.

READ MORE>>

2. M12 Connector Coding

blog 7.10_LI.jpgNew automation products hit the market every day and each device requires the correct cable to operate. Even in standard cables sizes, there are a variety of connector types that correspond with different applications.

READ MORE>>

3. When to use optical filtering in a machine vision application

blog 7.3_LI.jpgIndustrial image processing is essentially a requirement in modern manufacturing. Vision solutions can deliver visual quality control, identification and positioning. While vision systems have gotten easier to install and use, there isn’t a one-size-fits-all solution. Knowing how and when you should use optical filtering in a machine vision application is a vital part of making sure your system delivers everything you need.

READ MORE>>

4. The Difference Between Intrinsically Safe and Explosion Proof

5.14_LIThe difference between a product being ‘explosion proof’ and ‘intrinsically safe’ can be confusing but it is vital to select the proper one for your application. Both approvals are meant to prevent a potential electrical equipment malfunction from initiating an explosion or ignition through gases that may be present in the surrounding area. This is accomplished in both cases by keeping the potential energy level below what is necessary to start ignition process in an open atmosphere.

READ MORE>>

5. Smart choices deliver leaner processes in Packaging, Food and Beverage industry

Smart choices deliver leaner processes in PFB_LI.jpgIn all industries, there is a need for more flexible and individualized production as well as increased transparency and documentable processes. Overall equipment efficiency, zero downtime and the demand for shorter production runs have created the need for smart machines and ultimately the smart factory. Now more than ever, this is important in the Packaging, Food and Beverage (PFB) industry to ensure that the products and processes are clean, safe and efficient.

READ MORE>>

We appreciate your dedication to Automation Insights in 2019 and look forward to growth and innovation in 2020!

 

 

The Benefits of Guided Changeover in Packaging

Today’s consumer packaged goods (CPG) market is driving the need for greater agility and flexibility in packaging machinery.  Shorter, more customized runs create more frequent machine changeover.  Consequently, reducing planned and unplanned downtime at changeover is one of the key challenges CPG companies are working to improve.

Many packaging machine builders are now providing fully automated changeover, where motors move pieces into the correct position upon recipe change.  This has proven to be a winning solution, however, not every application can accommodate motors, especially those on older machines.

Guided changeover represents an opportunity to modify or retrofit existing equipment to improve agility and flexibility on older machines that are not yet ready to be replaced.

An affordable intermediate step between fully manual and fully automated changeover: 

A measurement sensor can be added to provide position feedback on parts that require repositioning for changeover.  By using indicator lights, counters or displays at the point of use, the operator is provided with visual guidance to reposition the moving part.  Only once all parts are in the correct position can the machine start up and run.

By utilizing this concept, CPG companies can realize several key benefits:

  • Reduced planned downtime: Adding guidance reduces the amount of time it takes to move parts into the correct position.
  • Reduced unplanned downtime: Providing operator guidance minimizes mistakes, avoiding jams and other problems caused by misalignment.
  • Reduced waste: Operators can “dial in” moving parts quickly and precisely.  This allows the machine to be fully operational sooner, minimizing runoff and scrap.
  • Improved operator training: Providing operator guidance helps CPG companies deal with inevitable workforce attrition.  New operators can be quickly trained on changeover procedures.

Selecting the correct sensor

A variety of sensor technologies can be used to create guide changeover; it’s really a matter of fit, form and function.  Common technologies used in changeover position applications include linear positioning transducers  and encoders.  Other devices like inductive and photoelectric distance sensors can be used with some creativity to solve challenging applications.

Available mounting space and environmental conditions should be taken into consideration when selecting the correct device.  Sensors with enhanced IP ratings are available for harsh environmental conditions and washdown.

Analog devices are commonly used to retrofit machines with older PLCs, while IO-Link can be used in place of analog for a fully digital solution, enabling bi-directional communication between the sensor and controller for condition monitoring, automatic device replacement and parameter changes.

Using MicroSpot LEDs for Precise Evaluations in Life Science

Handling microfluidics and evaluating samples based on light is a precise science. And that precision comes from the light source, not the actual detection method. But too many times we see standard LEDs being used in these sensing and evaluation applications. Standard LEDs are typically developed for lighting and illumination applications and require too many ancillary components to achieve a minimum level of acceptability. Fortunately, there is an alternate technology.

First, let’s look at a standard LED. Figure 1 shows a typical red LED. You can see the light emission surface is cluttered with the anode pad (square in the middle) and its bond wire. These elements are fine for applications like long-range sensing, lighting and indications, but for precise, up-close applications they cause disturbances.

Figure 1: Typical red LED showing the intrusion of the anode and bond wire into the light emission

Most notable is the square hole in the middle of the emission pattern. There are two typical methods to reduce the effect of the hole: lensing and apertures. An aperture essentially restricts the emitted light to a corner of the die, substantially reducing the light energy causing difficulties with low-contrast detections. Using a lens only will maintain the light energy, but the beam will have a fixed focused point that is not acceptable for many applications. But even the bond wire produces reflections and causes spurious emissions. These cannot be tolerated with microfluidics as adjacent channels will become involved in the measurement. An additional aperture is typically used to suppress the spurious emissions.

Fortunately, there is an alternative with MicroSpot LEDs. Basically, the anode and emission areas are inverted as shown in the Figure 2 comparison.

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Figure 2: Comparison of the typical LED with the MicroSpot’s clean, powerful and collimated emission

This eliminates the need for the anode and bond wire to interfere with the emitted light. This produces a clean, powerful and collimated emission that will produce consistent results without additional components. This level of beam control is typically reserved for lasers. However, lasers also require more components, are much larger and cost more. The MicroSpot LED is the best choice for demanding life science applications.

Try the MicroSpot for yourself in select Balluff MICROmote miniature photoelectric sensors.

Learn more at www.balluff.com.

Tackle Quality Issues and Improve OEE in Vision Systems for Packaging

Packaging industries must operate with the highest standards of quality and productivity. Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) is a scoring system widely used to track production processes in packaging. An OEE score is calculated using data specifying quality (percent of good parts), performance (performance of nominal speed) and equipment availability (percent of planned uptime).

Quality issues can directly impact the customer, so it is essential to have processes in place to ensure the product is safe to use and appropriately labeled before it ships out. Additionally, defects to the packaging like dents, scratches and inadequate labeling can affect customer confidence in a product and their willingness to buy it at the store. Issues with quality can lead to unplanned downtime, waste and loss of productivity, affecting all three metrics of the OEE score.

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Traditionally, visual inspections and packaging line audits have been used to monitor quality, however, this labor can be challenging in high volume applications. Sensing solutions can be used to partly automate the process, but complex demands, including multiple package formats and product formulas in the same line, require the flexibility that machine vision offers. Machine vision is also a vital component in adding traceability down to the unit in case a quality defect or product recall does occur.

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Vision systems can increase productivity in a packaging line by reducing the amount of planned and unplanned downtime for manual quality inspection. Vision can be reliably used to detect quality defects as soon as they happen. With this information, a company can make educated improvements to the equipment to improve repeatability and OEE and ensure that no defective product reaches the customers’ hands.

Some vision applications for quality assurance in packaging include:

  • Label inspection (presence, integrity, print quality, OCV/OCR)
    • Check that a label is in place, lined up correctly and free of scratches and tears. Ensure that any printed graphics, codes and text are legible and printed with the expected quality. Use a combination of OCR (Optical Character Recognition) to read a lot number, expiration date or product information, and then OCV (Optical Character Verification) to ensure legibility.
  • Primary and secondary packaging inspection for dents and damage
    Inspect bottles, cans and boxes to make sure that their geometry has not been altered during the manufacturing process. For example, check that a bottle rim is circular and has not been crushed so that the bottle cap can be put on after filling with product.
  • Safety seal/cap presence and position verification
    Verifying that a cap and/or seal has been placed correctly on a bottle, and/or that the container being used is the correct one for the formula / product being manufactured.
  • Product position verification in packages with multiple items
    In packages of solids, making sure they have been filled adequately and in the correct sequence. In pharmaceutical industries, this can be used to check that blister packs have a pill in each space, and in food industries to ensure that the correct food item is placed in each space of the package.
  • Certification of proper liquid level in containers
    For applications in which it can’t be done reliably with traditional sensing technologies, vision systems can be used to ensure that a bottle has been filled to its nominal volume.

The flexibility of vision systems allows for addressing these complex applications and many more with a well-designed vision solution.

For more information on Balluff vision solutions and applications, visit www.balluff.com.