The 5 Most Common Types of Fixed Industrial Robots

The International Federation of Robotics (IFR) defines five types of fixed industrial robots: Cartesian/Gantry, SCARA, Articulated, Parallel/Delta and Cylindrical (mobile robots are not included in the “fixed” robot category). These types are generally classified by their mechanical structure, which dictates the ways they can move.

Based on the current market situation and trends, we have modified this list by removing Cylindrical robots and adding Power & Force Limited Collaborative robots. Cylindrical robots have a small, declining share of the market and some industry analysts predict that they will be completely replaced by SCARA robots, which can cover similar applications at higher speed and performance. On the other hand, use of collaborative robots has grown rapidly since their first commercial sale by Universal Robots in 2008. This is why collaborative robots are on our list and cylindrical/spherical robots are not.

Therefore, our list of the top five industrial robot types includes:

    • Articulated
    • Cartesian/Gantry
    • Parallel/Delta
    • SCARA
    • Power & Force Limited Collaborative robots

These five common types of robots have emerged to address different applications, though there is now some overlap in the applications they serve. And range of industries where they are used is now very wide. The IFR’s 2021 report ranks electronics/electrical, automotive, metal & machinery, plastic and chemical products and food as the industries most commonly using fixed industrial robots. And the top applications identified in the report are material/parts handling and machine loading/unloading, welding, assembling, cleanrooms, dispensing/painting and processing/machining.

Articulated robots

Articulated robots most closely resemble a human arm and have multiple rotary joints–the most common versions have six axes. These can be large, powerful robots, capable of moving heavy loads precisely at moderate speeds. Smaller versions are available for precise movement of lighter loads. These robots have the largest market share (≈60%) and are growing between 5–10% per year.

Articulated robots are used across many industries and applications. Automotive has the biggest user base, but they are also used in other industries such as packaging, metalworking, plastics and electronics. Applications include material & parts handling (including machine loading & unloading, picking & placing and palletizing), assembling (ranging from small to large parts), welding, painting, and processing (machining, grinding, polishing).

SCARA robots

A SCARA robot is a “Selective Compliance Assembly Robot Arm,” also known as a “Selective Compliance Articulated Robot Arm.” They are compliant in the X-Y direction but rigid in the Z direction. These robots are fairly common, with around 15% market share and a 5-10% per year growth rate.

SCARA robots are most often applied in the Life Sciences, Semiconductor and Electronics industries. They are used in applications requiring high speed and high accuracy such as assembling, handling or picking & placing of lightweight parts, but also in 3D printing and dispensing.

Cartesian/Gantry robots

Cartesian robots, also known as gantry or linear robots, move along multiple linear axes. Since these axes are very rigid, they can precisely move heavy payloads, though this also means they require a lot of space. They have about 15% market share and a 5-10% per year growth rate.

Cartesian robots are often used in handling, loading/unloading, sorting & storing and picking & placing applications, but also in welding, assembling and machining. Industries using these robots include automotive, packaging, food & beverage, aerospace, heavy engineering and semiconductor.

Delta/Parallel robots

Delta robots (also known as parallel robots) are lightweight, high-speed robots, usually for fast handling of small and lightweight products or parts. They have a unique configuration with three or four lightweight arms arranged in parallelograms. These robots have 5% market share and a 3–5% growth rate.

They are often used in food or small part handling and/or packaging. Typical applications are assembling, picking & placing and packaging. Industries include food & beverage, cosmetics, packaging, electronics/ semiconductor, consumer goods, pharmaceutical and medical.

Power & Force Limiting Collaborative robots

We add the term “Power & Force Limiting” to our Collaborative robot category because the standards actually define four collaborative robot application modes, and we want to focus on this, the most well-known mode. Click here to read a blog on the different collaborative modes. Power & Force Limiting robots include models from Universal Robots, the FANUC CR green robots and the YuMi from ABB. Collaborative robots have become popular due to their ease of use, flexibility and “built-in” safety and ability to be used in close proximity to humans. They are most often an articulated robot with special features to limit power and force exerted by the axes to allow close, safe operation near humans or other machines. Larger, faster and stronger robots can also be used in collaborative applications with the addition of safety sensors and special programming.

Power & Force Limiting Collaborative robots have about 5% market share and sales are growing rapidly at 20%+ per year. They are a big success with small and mid-size enterprises, but also with more traditional robot users in a very broad range of industries including automotive and electronics. Typical applications include machine loading/unloading, assembling, handling, dispensing, picking & placing, palletizing, and welding.


The robot market is one of the most rapidly growing segments of the industrial automation industry. The need for more automation and robots is driven by factors such as supply chain issues, changing workforce, cost pressures, digitalization and mass customization (highly flexible manufacturing). A broad range of robot types, capabilities and price points have emerged to address these factors and satisfy the needs of applications and industries ranging from automotive to food & beverage to life sciences.

Note: Market share and growth rate estimates in this blog are based on public data published by the International Federation of Robotics, Loup Ventures, NIST and Interact Analysis.

Picking Solutions: How Complex Must Your System Be?

Bin-picking, random picking, pick and place, pick and drop, palletization, depalletization—these are all part of the same project. You want a fully automated process that grabs the desired sample from one position and moves it somewhere else. Before you choose the right solution for your project, you should think about how the objects are arranged. There are three picking solutions: structured, semi-structured, and random.

As you can imagine, the basic differences between these solutions are in their complexity and their approach. The distribution and arrangement of the samples to be picked will set the requirements for a solution. Let’s have a look at the options:

Structured picking

From a technical point of view, this is the easiest type of picking application. Samples are well organized and very often in a single layer. Arranging the pieces in a highly organized way requires high-level preparation of the samples and more storage space to hold the pieces individually. Because the samples are in a single layer or are layered at a defined height, a traditional 2-dimensional camera is more than sufficient. There are even cases where the vision system isn’t necessary at all and can be replaced by a smart sensor or another type of sensor. Typical robot systems use SCARA or Delta models, which ensure maximum speed and a short cycle time.

Semi-structured picking

Greater flexibility in robotization is necessary since semi-structured bin picking requires some predictability in sample placement. A six-axis robot is used in most cases, and the demands on its grippers are more complex. However, it depends on the gripping requirements of the samples themselves. It is rarely sufficient to use a classic 2D area scan camera, and a 3D camera is required instead. Many picking applications also require a vision inspection step, which burdens the system and slows down the entire cycle time.

Random picking

Samples are randomly loaded in a carrier or pallet. On the one hand, this requires minimal preparation of samples for picking, but on the other hand, it significantly increases the demands on the process that will make a 3D vision system a requirement. You need to consider that there are very often collisions between selected samples. This is a factor not only when looking for the right gripper but also for the approach of the whole picking process.

Compared to structured picking, the cycle time is extended due to scanning evaluation, robot trajectory, and mounting accuracy. Some applications require the deployment of two picking stations to meet the required cycle time. It is often necessary to limit the gripping points used by the robot, which increases the demands on 3D image quality, grippers, and robot track guidance planning and can also require an intermediate step to place the same in the exact position needed for gripping.

In the end, the complexity of the picking solution is set primarily by the way the samples are arranged. The less structured their arrangement, the more complicated the system must be to meet the project’s demands. By considering how samples are organized before they are picked, as well as the picking process, you can design an overall process that meets your requirements the best.

Know Your RFID Frequency Basics

In 2008 I purchased my first toll road RFID transponder, letting me drive through and pay my toll without stopping at a booth. This was my first real-life exposure to RFID, and it was magical. Back then, all I knew was that RFID stood for “radio frequency identification” and that it exchanged data between a transmitter and receiver using radio waves. That’s enough for a highway driver, but you’ll need more information to use RFID in an industrial automation setting. So here are some basics on what makes up an RFID system and the uses of different radio frequencies.

At a minimum, an RFID system comprises a tag, an antenna, and a processor. Tags, also known as data carriers, can be active or passive. Active tags have a built-in power source, and passive tags are powered by the electromagnetic field emitted by the antenna and are dormant otherwise. Active tags have a much longer range than passive tags. But passive tags are most commonly used in industrial RFID applications due to lower component costs and no maintenance requirements.

Low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), ultra-high frequency (UHF)

The next big topic is the different frequency ranges used by RFID: low frequency (LF), high frequency (HF), and ultra-high frequency (UHF). What do they mean? LF systems operate at a frequency range of 125…135 kHz, HF systems operate at 13.56 MHz, and UHF systems operate at a frequency range of 840…960 MHz. This tells you that the systems are not compatible with each other and that you must choose the tag, antenna, and processor unit from a single system for it to work properly. This also means that the LF, HF, and UHF systems will not interfere with each other, so you can install different types of RFID systems in a plant without running a risk of interference or crosstalk issues between them or any other radio communications technology.


Choosing the correct system frequency?

How do you choose the correct system frequency? The main difference between LF/HF systems and UHF systems is the coupling between the tags and the antenna/processor. LF and HF RFID systems use inductive coupling, where an inductive coil on the antenna head is energized to generate an inductive field. When a tag is present in that inductive field, it will be energized and begin communications back and forth. Using the specifications of the tag and the antenna/processor, it is easy to determine the read/write range or the air gap between the tag and the antenna head.

The downside of using LF/HF RFID technology based on inductive coupling is that the read/write range is relatively short, and it’s dependent on the physical size of the coils in the antenna head and the tag. The bigger the antenna and tag combination, the greater the read/write distance or the air gap between the antenna and the tag. The best LF and HF RFID uses are in close-range part tracking and production control where you need to read/write data to a single tag at a time.

UHF RFID systems use electromagnetic wave coupling to transmit power and data over radio waves between the antenna and the tag. The Federal Communications Commission strictly regulates the power level and frequency range of the radio waves, and there are different frequency range specifications depending on the country or region where the UHF RFID system is being used. In the United States, the frequency is limited to a range between 902 and 928MHz. Europe, China, and Japan have different operating range specifications based on their regulations, so you must select the correct frequency range based on the system’s location.

Using radio waves enables UHF RFID systems to achieve a much greater read/write range than inductive coupling-based RFID systems. UHF RFID read/write distance range varies based on transmission power, environmental interference, and the size of the UHF RFID tag, but can be as large as 6 meters or 20 feet. Environmental interferences such as metal structures or liquids, including human bodies, can deflect or absorb radio waves and significantly impact the performance and reliability of a UHF RFID system. UHF RFID systems are great at detecting multiple tags at greater distances, making them well suited for traceability and intralogistics applications. They are not well suited for single tag detection applications, especially if surrounded by metal structures.

Because of the impact an environment has on UHF signals, it is advisable to conduct a full feasibility study by the vendor of the UHF RFID system before the system solution is purchased to ensure that the system will meet the application requirements. This includes bringing in the equipment needed, such as tags, antennas, processors, and mounting brackets to the point of use to ensure reliable transmission of data between the tag and the antenna and testing the system performance in normal working conditions. Performing a feasibility study reduces the risk of the system not meeting the customer’s expectations or application requirements.

Selecting an industrial RFID system

There are other factors to consider when selecting an industrial RFID system, but this summary is a good place to start:

    • Most industrial RFID applications use passive RFID tags due to their lower component costs and no battery replacement needs.
    • For applications requiring short distance and single tag detection, LF or HF RFID systems are recommended.
    • For applications where long-distance and multi-tag detection is needed, UHF RFID systems are recommended.
    • If you are considering UHF, a feasibility study is highly recommended to ensure that the UHF RFID system will perform as intended and meet your requirements.

Click here to browse our library of Automation Insights blogs related to RFID.

IO-Link Benefits in Robotic Weld Cell Tooling

By Scott Barhorst

Working previously as a controls engineering manager in robotic welding, I have seen some consistent challenges when designing robotic weld cell systems.

For example, the pre-engineered-style welding cells I’ve worked with use many types of tooling. At the same time, space for tooling and cabling is limited, and so is the automation on board, with some using PLC function and others using a robot controller to process data.

One approach that worked well was to use IO-Link in the systems I designed. With its simple open fieldbus communication interface and digital transmission, it brought a number of benefits.

    1.  IO-Link’s digital signals aren’t affected by noise, so I could use smart sensors and connect them with unshielded 4-pin cables.
    2.  Expandability was easy, either from the Master block or by adding discrete I/O modules.
    3.  IO-Link can use the ID of the block to identify the fixture it is associated with to make sure the correct fixture is in the correct location.
    4.  Cabling is simplified with IO-Link, since the IO-Link Master can control both inputs, outputs, and control valve packs. That means that the only cables needed will be 24V power, Ethernet, weld ground (depending on the system), and air.
    5.  Fewer cables means less cost for cables and installation, cable management is improved, and there are fewer cables to run through a tailstock or turntable access hole.

One system I designed used 1 IO-Link Master block, 3 discrete I/O modules, and 1 SMC valve manifold controlled via IO-Link. This tooling had 16 clamps and 10 sensors, requiring 42 total inputs and control of 16 valves. The system worked very well with this setup!

An additional note: It’s good to think beyond the process at hand to how it might be used in the future. A system built on IO-Link is much more adaptable to different tooling when a change-over is needed. Click here to read more about how to use IO-Link in welding environments.






Add Depth to Your Processes With 3D Machine Vision

What comes to mind first when you think of 3D? Cheap red and blue glasses? Paying extra at a movie theater? Or maybe the awkward top screen on a Nintendo 3DS? Neither industrial machine vision nor robot guidance likely come to mind, but they should.

Advancements in 3D machine vision have taken the old method of 2D image processing and added literal depth. You become emerged into the application with true definition of the target—far from what you get looking at a flat image.

See For Yourself

Let’s do an exercise: Close one eye and try to pick up an object on your desk by pinching it. Did you miss it on the first try? Did things look foreign or off? This is because your depth perception is skewed with only one vision source. It takes both eyes to paint an accurate picture of your surroundings.

Now, imagine what you can do with two cameras side by side looking at an application. This is 3D machine vision; this is human.

How 3D Saves the Day

Robot guidance. The goal of robotics is to emulate human movements while allowing them to work more safely and reliably. So, why not give them the same vision we possess? When a robot is sent in to do a job it needs to know the x, y and z coordinates of its target to best control its approach and handle the item(s). 3D does this.

Part sorting. If you are anything like me, you have your favorite parts of Chex mix. Whether it’s the pretzels or the Chex pieces themselves, picking one out of the bowl takes coordination. Finding the right shape and the ideal place to grab it takes depth perception. You wouldn’t use a robot to sort your snacks, of course, but if you need to select specific parts in a bin of various shapes and sizes, 3D vision can give you the detail you need to select the right part every time.

Palletization and/or depalletization. Like in a game of Jenga, the careful and accurate stacking and removing of parts is paramount. Whether it’s for speed, quality or damage control, palletization/ depalletization of material needs 3D vision to position material accurately and efficiently.

I hope these 3D examples inspire you to seek more from your machine vision solution and look to the technology of the day to automate your processes. A picture is worth a thousand words, just imagine what a 3D image can tell you.

Lithium Ion Battery Manufacturing – RFID is on a Roll

With more and more consumers setting their sights on ‘Drive Electric,’ manufacturers must prepare themselves for alternative solutions to combustion engines. This change will no doubt require an alternative automation strategy for our electric futures.

The battery

The driving force behind these new electric vehicles is, of course, the battery. With this new wave of electric vehicles, the lithium ion battery manufacturing sector is growing exponentially, creating a significant need for traceability and tracking throughout the manufacturing processes.

Battery manufacturing is classified into three major production areas:

    1. Electrode manufacturing
    2. Cell assembly
    3. Finishing formation, aging and testing

These processes require flexible and efficient automation solutions to produce high quality batteries effectively. As such, there are numerous areas that can benefit from RFID and/or code reading solutions. One of the biggest of these is the electrode manufacturing process, specifically on the individual mother and daughter electrode rolls. This is a great application for UHF (Ultra-High Frequency) RFID.

The Need for RFID

The electrode formation process involves numerous production steps, including mixing, coating, calendaring, drying, slitting and vacuum drying. Each machine process generally begins with unwinding turrets and ends with winding ones. A roll-to-roll process.

Two of the three primary components of the lithium ion battery, both the anode and cathode electrode, are produced on rolls and require identification, process step validation and full traceability all the way through the plant.

During the slitting process both larger mother rolls are unwound and sliced into multiple, smaller daughter rolls. These mother and daughter rolls must also be tracked and traced through the remaining processes, into storage and ultimately, into a battery cell.


Working with our battery customers and understanding their process needs, a UHF RFID tag was developed specifically to withstand the electrode production environment. Having a tag that can withstand a high temperature range is crucial, particularly in the vacuum drying lines. This tag is capable of surviving cycling applications with temperatures up to 235 °C. Its small form factor is ideal for recess mounting in the anode and cathode roll cores with an operating range reaching 4 meters.


The tag embedded in the roll core paired with an RFID processor and UHF antenna provides all the necessary hardware in supporting battery plants to achieve their desired objective of tracking all production steps. Customers not only have the option of obtaining read/writes, via fixed antennas at the turrets, but also handheld ones for all storage locations — from goods receiving to daughter coil storage racks within a plant.

This UHF RFID system allows for tracking from the initial electrode coils from goods received in the warehouse, through the multiple machines in the electrode manufacturing process, into the storage areas, and to the battery cell assembly going in the electric vehicle — ultimately linking all battery cells back to a particular daughter roll, and back to its initial mother roll. RFID is on a Roll!

How Industrial RFID Can Reduce Downtime in Your Stamping Department

The appliance industry is growing at record rates. The increase in consumer demand for new appliances is at an all-time high and is outpacing current supply. Appliance manufacturers are increasing production to catch up with this demand. This makes the costs associated with downtime even higher than normal. But using industrial RFID can allow you to reduce downtime in your stamping departments and keep production moving.

Most major household appliance manufacturers have large stamping departments as part of their manufacturing process. I like to think of the stamping department as the heart of the manufacturing plant. If you have ever been in a stamping department while they are stamping out metal parts, then you understand. The thumping and vibration of the press at work is what feeds the rest of the plant.  I was in a plant a few weeks ago meeting with an engineer in the final assembly area. It was oddly quiet in that area, so I asked what was going on. He said they’d sent everyone home early because one of their major press lines went down unexpectedly. Every department got sent home because they did not have the pieces and parts needed to make the final product. That is how critical the stamping departments are at these facilities.

In past years, this wasn’t as critical, because they had an inventory of parts and finished product. But the increase in demand over the last two years depleted that inventory. They need ways to modernize the press shop, including implementing smarter products like devices with Industry 4.0 capabilities to get real-time data on the equipment for things like analytics, OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness), preventative maintenance, downtime, and more error proofing applications.

Implementing Industrial RFID

One of the first solutions many appliance manufacturers implement in the press department is traceability using industrial RFID technology. Traceability is typically used to document and track different steps in a process chain to help reduce the costs associated with non-conformance issues. This information is critical when a company needs to provide information for proactive product recalls, regulatory compliance, and quality standards. In stamping departments, industrial RFID is often used for applications like asset tracking, machine access control, and die identification. Die ID is not only used to identify which die is present, but it can also be tied back to the main press control system to make sure the correct job is loaded.

need for RFID in appliance stamping
This shows an outdated manual method using papers that are easily lost or destroyed.
appliance stamping can be improved by RFID
This image shows an identification painted on a die, which can be easily destroyed.

Traditionally, most companies have a die number either painted on the die or they have a piece of paper with the job set up attached to the die. I cannot tell you how many times I have seen these pieces of paper on the floor. Press departments are pretty nasty environments, so these pieces of paper get messed up pretty quickly. And the dies take a beating, so painted numbers can easily get rubbed or scratched off.

Implementing RFID for die ID is a simple and affordable solution to this problem. First, you would attach an RFID tag with all of the information about the job to each die. You could also write maintenance information about the die to this tag, such as when the die was last worked on, who last worked on it, or process information like how many parts have been made on this die.
Next, you need to place an antenna. Most people mount the antenna to one of the columns of the press where the tag would pass in front of it as it is getting loaded into the die. The antenna would be tied back to a processor or IO-Link master if using IO-Link. The processor or IO-Link master would communicate with the main press control system. As the die is set in the press, the antenna reads the tag and tells the main control system which die is in place and what job to load.

In a stamping department you might find several large presses. Each press will have multiple dies that are associated with each press. Each die is set up to form a particular part. It is unique to the part it is forming and has its own job, or recipe, programmed in the main press control system. Many major stamping departments still use manual operator entry for set up and to identify which tools are in the press. But operators are human, so it is very easy to punch in the wrong number, which is why RFID is a good, automated solution.

In conclusion

When I talk with people in stamping departments, they tell me one of the main reasons a crash occurs is because information was entered incorrectly by the operator during set up. Crashes can be expensive to repair because of the damage to the tooling or press, but also because of the downtime associated. Establishing a good die setup process is critical to a stamping department’s success and implementing RFID can eliminate many of these issues.

UHF RFID: Driving Efficiency in Automotive Production

Manufactured in batch size 1, bumper to bumper on modular production lines, with the support of collaborative robots –  this is the reality in modern automotive production. Without transparent and continuous processes, production would come to a standstill. Therefore, it is important to have reliable technology in use. For many car manufacturers, UHF RFID is not only used to control manufacturing within a plant but recently more and more also to track new vehicles in the finishing and even shipping processes. And many manufacturers have already started using UHF across production plants and even across companies with their suppliers because it makes just-in-time and just-in-sequence production a lot easier. This blog post gives an insight into why UHF could be the technology of the future for automotive production.

What is UHF?

UHF stands for ultra-high frequency and is the frequency band of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) from 300 MHz to 3 GHz. UHF with the EPC global Gen2 UHF standard typically in the frequency range of 860 – 960 MHz, with regional differences. Besides UHF other popular RFID frequency bands used in production are LF (low frequency) – operating typically at 125 kHz – and HF (high frequency) – operating typically at 13.56 MHz worldwide. LF is used mainly for Tool ID and HF for ticketing, payment, and production and access control.

UHF RFID used to ensure the proper headrest is placed on automotive seats.
An RFID sensor scans a tag on a car headset during production

UHF systems have the longest read range with up to a few meters and a faster data transfer rate than LF or HF. Therefore, it’s used in a wide variety of applications and the fastest growing segment of the RFID market. Tracking goods or car parts in the supply chain, inventorying assets, and authenticating car parts are just some examples for the automotive industry.

And this is how it works: A UHF reader emits a signal and energy to its environment via an antenna. If a UHF data carrier can be activated by this energy, a data exchange can take place. The data carrier or tag backscatters the reader signal and modulates it according to its specific data content.

UHF vs. Optical systems

Intelligent data generated by intelligent RFID solutions is a crucial part of efficient and transparent processes. To achieve this, the use of innovative UHF technology is essential. Because in the long-term UHF could replace existing HF or LF RFID applications as well as optical systems. Due to its wider range of functions and performance, UHF has the potential to enable a cross-enterprise data flow.

This table shows that UHF can offer a performance and interaction that optical formats can’t:


  UHF Systems Optical Systems
Automation Automated process reduces or eliminates manual scanning Manual scanning or low-level automation
Speed 20,000 units per hour (ms/read) 450 units per hour (s/read)
Convenience Can scan items even when they are hidden from view or inside a package Can scan only what it can see
Efficiency Scanning many at once is possible Scans one at a time
Intelligence Chip memory, which can be updated or rewritten to create a more dynamic and responsive process Static data on the label
Security Security features, such as authentication, can be offered on the item level Security features not available or even possible

Sometimes short range is required

Although the UHF technology can read up to a few meters – which is perfect and even required for (intra)logistic processes – this can also be a challenge, especially in some manufacturing areas. Within part production it is often necessary that the detection range is limited and only one part is detected at a time. In these cases, it’s important that the power is either turned down so far that only one part is detected at a time or a special short-range UHF reader resp. special short-range antenna are used.

The technology’s potential can only be fully exploited if every stage of production is supported by UHF. The use of UHF is versatile and can either be used as closed-loop where the UHF tag stays in the production process or as open-loop with UHF labels that are glued onto or into parts like car bodies, bumpers, head rests, tires etc. where they will remain and possibly be used during the subsequent logistics applications.

Besides eliminating manual processes, UHF RFID delivers full visibility of your inventory (automated!) at any time which helps you to reduce shrinkage and prevent stock losses. This improves your overall business operations. Additionally, you can secure access to certain areas.

Another reason to rely up on UHF is the consistently high standard of data quality. When you acquire the same data type from all areas you can generate trend analysis as the readings can be compared with one another. So, you can obtain extensive information on the entire production process – something that isn’t possible when mixing different technologies. This gives you the opportunity to utilize preventive measures.


RFID Replaces Bar Codes for Efficient Asset Tracking

Bar code technology has been around for many years and is a tried and true means for tracking asset and product movement, but it has its limitations. For example, a bar code reader must have an unobstructed view of the bar code to effectively scan. And the bar code label cannot be damaged, or it is then unreadable by the scanner.

In more recent years, additional RFID technologies have been more readily available for use to accomplish the same task but with fewer limitations. Using RFD, a scanner may be able to read tags that are blocked by other things and not visible to the naked eye. UHF RFID can scan multiple tags at the same time in a single scan, whereas most bar codes need to be scanned individually. This, therefore, increases efficiency and reduces the time required to perform the scans.

Then, of course, there is the human factor. RFID can help eliminate mistakes caused by human error. Most bar code scanning is done with hand scanners held by workers since the scanner has to be in the exact position to see the bar code to get a good scan. While manual/hand-held scanning can be done using RFID, most times a fixed scanner can be used as long as the position of the RFID tag can be guaranteed within certain tolerances. These tolerances are much greater than with a bar code scanner.

With the advent of inexpensive consumable RFID labels, the ease and cost of transitioning to RFID technology has become more feasible for manufacturers and end users. These labels can be purchased for pennies each in rolls of several thousand at a time.

It should be noted that several companies now produce printers that can actually code the information on a RFID label tag while also printing data, including bar codes, on these label tags so you have the best of both worlds. Tags can be scanned automatically and data that can be read by the human eye as well as a bar code scanner.

Some companies have expressed concern about the usage of RFID in different countries due to local regulations regarding the frequencies of radio waves causing interferences.

This is not an issue for HF  and UHF technology. HF is an ISO standard (ISO 15693) technology so it applies to most everywhere. For UHF, which is more likely to be used due to the ability to scan at a distance and scan multiple tags at the same time, the only caveat is that different areas of the world allow scanners to only operate in certain frequencies. This is overcome by the fact that almost all UHF tags that I have encountered are what are called global tags.

This means these tags can be used in any of the global frequency ranges of UHF signals. For example, in the North America, the FCC restricts the frequency range for UHF RFID scanners to 902-928 MHz, whereas MIC in Japan restricts them to 952-954 MHz, ETSI EN 300-220 in Europe restricts them to 865-868 MHz, and DOT in India restricts them to 865-867 MHz. These global tags can be used in any of these ranges as they work from 860 to 960 MHz.

On the subject of UHF, it should be mentioned that in addition to the frequency ranges restricted by various part of the world, maximum antenna power is also locally restricted.

For more information on RFID for asset tracking, visit


Ensure Food Safety with Machine Vision

Government agencies have put food manufacturers under a microscope to ensure they follow food safety standards and comply with regulations. When it comes to the health and safety of consumers, quality assurance is a top priority, but despite this, according to The World of Health Organization, approximately 600 million people become ill each year after eating contaminated food, and 420,000 die.

Using human manual inspection for quality assurance checks in this industry can be detrimental to the company and its consumers due to human error, fatigue and subjective opinions. Furthermore, foreign particles that should not be found in the product may be microscopic and invisible to the human eye. These defects can lead to illness, recalls, lawsuits, and a long-term negative perception of the brand itself. Packaging, food and beverage manufacturers must realize these potential risks and review the benefits of incorporating machine vision. Although machine vision implementation may sound like a costly investment, it is small price to pay when compared to the potential damage of uncaught issues. Below I explore a few benefits that machine vision offers in the packaging, food and beverage industries.

Consumers expect and rely on safe products from food manufacturers. Machine vision can see through packaging to determine the presence of foreign particles that should not be present, ensuring these products are removed from the production line. Machine vision is also capable of inspecting for cross-contamination, color correctness, ripeness, and even spoilage. For example, bruises on apples can be hard to spot for the untrained eye unless extremely pronounced. SWIR (shortwave infrared) illumination proves effective for the detection of defects and contamination. Subsurface bruising defects become much easier to detect due to the optimization of lighting and these defected products can be scrapped.

Uniformity of Containers
Brand recognition is huge for manufacturers in this industry. Products that have defects such as dents or uneven contents inside the container can greatly affect the public’s perception of the product and/or company. Machine vision can detect even the slightest deformity in the container and ensure they are removed from the line. It can also scan the inside of the container to ensure that the product is uniform for each batch. Vision systems have the ability optimize lighting intensity, uniformity, and geometry to obtain images with good contrast and signal to noise. Having the ability to alter lighting provides a much clearer image of the point of interest. This can allow you to see inside a container to determine if the fill level is correct for the specific product.

Packaging is important because if the products shipped to the store are regularly defected, the store can choose to stop stocking that item, costing the manufacturer valuable business. The seal must last from production to arrival at the store to ensure that the product maintains its safe usability through its marked expiration date. In bottling applications, the conveyors are moving at high speeds so the inspection process must be able to quickly and correctly identify defects. A facility in Marseille, France was looking to inspect Heineken beer bottles as they passed through a bottling machine at a rate of 22 bottles/second (80,000 bottles/hour). Although this is on the faster end of the spectrum, many applications require high-speed quality checks that are impossible for a human operator. A machine vision system can be configured to handle these high-speed applications and taught to detect the specified defect.


It’s crucial for the labels to be printed correctly and placed on the correct product because of the food allergy threats that some consumers experience. Machine vision can also benefit this aspect of the production process as cameras can be taught to recognize the correct label and brand guidelines. Typically, these production lines move at speeds too fast for human inspection. An intuitive, easy to use, machine vision software package allows you to filter the labels, find the object using reference points and validate the text quickly and accurately.

These areas of the assembly process throughout packaging, food and beverage facilities should be considered for machine vision applications. Understanding what problems occur and the cost associated with them is helpful in justifying whether machine vision is right for you.

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