Reliable Part Exit/Part-Out Detection

Walk into any die shop in the US and nine out of ten times, we discover diffuse reflective sensors being used to detect a large part or a small part exiting a die. Many people have success using this methodology, but lubrication-covered tumbling parts can create challenges for diffuse-reflective photoelectric sensing devices for many reasons:

  1. Tumbling parts with many “openings” on the part itself can cause a miss-detected component.
  2. Overly-reflective parts can false triggering of the output.
  3. Dark segments of the exiting part can cause light absorption. Remember, a diffuse sensors sensing distance is based on reflectivity. Black or dark targets tend to absorb light and not reflect light back to the receiver.
  4. Die lube/misting can often fog over a photoelectric lens requiring maintenance or machine down time.

The solution: Super Long Range Inductive Sensors placed under chutes

Most metal forming personnel are very familiar with smaller versions of inductive proximity sensors in tubular sizes ranging from 3mm through 30mm in diameter and with square or “block style” inductive types (flat packs, “pancake types”, etc.) but it is surprising how many people are just now discovering “Super Long Range Inductive Proximity” types. Super Long Range Inductive Proximity Sensors have been used in metal detection applications for many years including Body-In-White Automotive applications, various segments of steel processing and manufacturing, the canning industry, and conveyance.

Benefits of Using A UHMW Chute + Super Long Range Inductive Proximity Sensor in Part Exit/Part-Out Applications:

  1. It is stronger and quieter than parts flowing over a metal chute, readily available in standard and custom widths, lengths and thicknesses to fit the needs of large and small part stampers everywhere.
  2. UHMW is reported to be 3X stronger than carbon steel.
  3. UHMW is resistant to die lubes.
  4. UHMW allows Super Long Range Inductive Proximity Sensors to be placed underneath and to be “tuned” to fit the exact zone dimension required to detect any part exiting the die (fixed ranges and tunable with a potentiometer). The sensing device is also always out of harm’s way.
  5. Provides an option for part detection in exiting applications that eliminates potential problems experienced in certain metal forming applications where photoelectric sensing solutions aren’t performing optimally.
A Two-Out Die with Metallic Chute
A Two-Out Die with Metallic Chute

Not every Part Exit/Part-Out application is the same and not every die, stamping application, vintage of equipment, budget for sensing programs are the same. But it’s important to remember in the world of stamping, to try as consistently as possible to think application specificity when using sensors.  That is, putting the right sensing system in the right place to get the job done and to have as many technical options available as possible to solve application needs in your own “real world” metal forming operation.  We believe the UHMW + Super Long Range Inductive System is such an option.

You can learn more in the video below or by visiting www.balluff.us.

Proximity Sensor Switching Distances

operating-distance
Diagram showing the relationship between the various operating distances of an inductive proximity sensor.

When looking at a data sheet for an inductive proximity sensor, there are usually several different specifications listed with regard to the switching distance (or operating distance). Which of these various specifications really matter to someone trying to use a prox sensor in a real-world application? How can a specifier or user decide which sensor is going to work best in their situation?

Fortunately, there is an international standard that defines sensor switching distances and spells out test methods to assure that sensor specifications from product to product and even manufacturer to manufacturer can be directly compared “apples to apples.”

This standard is IEC 60947-5-2 Low voltage switchgear and controlgear – Part 5-2: Control circuit devices and switching elements – Proximity switches.

Operating (switching) distance s

In the diagram shown here, the letter “s” refers to a given sensor specimen’s actual switching distance when tested.  It is defined as the distance (between the standard target and the sensing face of the proximity switch) at which a signal change is generated. For a normally open sensor, the target approaches the sensor axially, that is, the sensor approaches the active surface from the front (not the side). There are several subscripts used to describe different aspects of a sensor’s switching behavior.

Rated operating distance sn

… is the nominal switching distance of the sensor. It is simply used as a standard reference value. The rated operating distance is the best figure to use when comparing different sensor models to get an idea of their essential sensing distance capabilities.

Effective operating distance sr

…is the range of actual switching distances that any given proximity sensor will fall into when measured under specified conditions of mounting, temperature, and supply voltage. For well-designed and manufactured sensors, the sensor will be triggered between 90% and 110% of the rated operating distance. For example, various samples of a proximity sensor model with a rated operating distance (sn) of 8mm may deliver switch-on points anywhere between 7.2mm and 8.8mm.

Usable operating distance su

…takes into account the effects of the sensor’s full ambient temperature range (low to high) and variation of the supply voltage from 85% to 110% of the nominal voltage rating. The IEC standard requires the usable operating distance (su) to be between 90% and 110% of the effective operating distance (sr). For our example of a sensor with a rated operating distance (sn) of 8mm, the usable operating distance would fall between 6.5mm and 8.8mm. Pop quiz: why is the max of usable operating distance not 9.7mm (sr of 8.8mm * 110%)? Answer: the usable operating distance can always be less than but can never be greater than the maximum effective operating distance.

Assured operating distance sa

This is the distance of the target to the sensor where the sensor can be guaranteed to have turned on. If a target approaches within the assured operating distance, you can be confident that the sensor will detect it.  It is 90% of sr which is in turn 90% of sn, which is in effect 81% of sn. Going back to our example of a sensor with a rated operating distance (sn) of 8mm, sa would be 81% * 8mm = 6.5mm. So in essence, sa = su(min).

Differential travel H

Now when the target recedes, at what distance will the sensor switch off? All good-quality sensors have a built-in property called hysteresis, which means that the sensor will turn off when the target is further away from the sensor than the point where it turns on. This is necessary to prevent chattering and instability when the target approaches the sensor. We want the sensor to turn on and stay on, even if the target might be vibrating as it crosses the threshold of detection. For most sensors, it is defined as ≤ 20% of the effective operating distance sr. The differential travel is added to the value of sr to define the switch-off point.

In practice, for any group of sensors, the minimum value of H would be zero and the maximum value would be sr(max) + 20% of sr(max). For our example of a sensor with a rated operating distance (sn) of 8mm, 7.2mm ≤  sr  ≤ 8.8mm. So, the range of switch-off points would be 7.2mm ≤  sr+H  ≤ 10.6mm. It might sound like a large range, but for any given sensor specimen the switch-off point is never greater than 20% of that particular sensor’s switch-on point.

Conclusion

The good news is that you don’t have to conduct sensor tests yourself or go through all of these calculations manually to determine a sensor’s performance envelope. The sensor manufacturer provides all of these useful figures pre-calculated for you in the sensor data sheet.

Learn more about the basics of the most popular automation sensor here.

Let’s Get Small: The Drive Toward Miniaturization

minisensorGoing about our hectic daily lives, we tend to just take the modern cycle of innovation for granted. But when we stop to think about it, the changes we have seen in the products we buy are astonishing. This is especially true with regard to electronics. Not only are today’s products more feature-laden, more reliable, and more functional…they are also unbelievably small.

I remember our family’s first “cell phone” back in the ’90s. It was bolted to the floor of the car, required a rooftop antenna, and was connected to the car’s electrical system for power. All it did was place and receive phone calls. Today we are all carrying around miniature pocket computers we call “smartphones,” where the telephone functionality is – in reality – just another “app”.

Again going back two decades, we had a 32″ CRT analog television that displayed standard definition and weighed over 200 pounds; it took two strong people to move it around the house. Today it’s common to find 55″ LCD high-definition digital televisions that weigh only 50 pounds and can be moved around by one person with relative ease.

LabPhotoThese are just a couple of examples from the consumer world. Similar changes are taking place in the industrial and commercial world. Motors, controllers, actuators, and drives are shrinking. Today’s industrial actuators and motion systems offer either the same speed and power with less size and weight, or are simply more compact and efficient than ever before possible.

The advent of all this product miniaturization is driving a need for equally miniaturized manufacturing and assembly processes. And that means rising demand for miniaturized industrial sensors such as inductive proximity sensors, photoelectric presence sensors, and capacitive proximity sensors.

Another thing about assembling small things: the manufacturing tolerances also get small. The demand for sensor precision increases in direct proportion to manufacturing size reduction. Fortunately, miniature sensors are also inherently precision sensors. As sensors shrink in size, their sensing behavior typically becomes more precise. In absolute terms, things like repeatability, temperature drift, and hysteresis all improve markedly as sensor size diminishes. Miniature sensors can deliver the precise, repeatable, and consistent sensing performance demanded by the field of micro-manufacturing.

For your next compact assembly project, be sure to think about the challenges of your precision sensing applications, and how you plan to deploy miniature sensors to achieve consistent and reliable operation from your process.

For more information on precision sensing visit balluff.us/minis.

Back to the Basics: How Do I Wire a DC 2-wire Sensor?

In one of my previous post we covered “How do I wire my 3-wire sensors“. This topic has had a lot of interest so I thought to myself, this would be a great opportunity to add to that subject and talk about DC 2-wire sensors. Typically in factory automation applications 2 or 3 wire sensors are implemented within the process, and as you know from my prior post a 3 wire sensor has the following 3 wires; a power wire, a ground wire and a switch wire.

A 2-wire sensor of course only has 2 wires including a power wire and ground wire with connection options of Polarized and Non-Polarized. A Polarized option requires the power wire to be connected to the positive (+) side and the ground wire to be connected to the negative side (-) of the power supply. The Non-Polarized versions can be wired just as a Polarized sensor however they also have the ability to be wired with the ground wire (-) to the positive side and the power wire (+) to the negative side of the power supply making this a more versatile option as the sensor can be wired with the wires in a non – specific location within the power supply and controls.

In the wiring diagrams below you will notice the different call outs for the Polarized vs. Non-Polarized offerings.

PolarizedDiagramsnon-polarized diagramsNote: (-) Indication of Non-Polarized wiring.

While 3-wire sensors are a more common option as they offer very low leakage current, 2 wire offerings do have their advantages per application. They can be wired in a sinking (NPN) or sourcing (PNP) configuration depending on the selected load location. Also keep in mind they only have 2 wires simplifying connection processes.

For more information on DC 2- Wire sensors click here.

When is a Weld Field Immune Sensor Needed?

When the topic of welding comes up we know that our application is going to be more challenging for sensor selection. Today’s weld cells typically found in tier 1 and tier 2 automotive plants are known to have hostile environments that the standard sensor cannot withstand and can fail regularly. There are many sensor offerings that are designed for welding including special features like Weld Field Immune Circuitry, High Temperature Weld Spatter Coatings and SteelFace Housings.

For this SENSORTECH topic I would like to review Weld Field Immune (WFI) sensors. Many welding application areas can generate strong magnetic fields. When this magnetic field is present a typical standard sensor cannot tolerate the magnetic field and is subject to intermittent behavior that can cause unnecessary downtime by providing a false signal when there is no target present. WFI sensors have special filtering properties with robust circuitry that will enable them to withstand the influence of strong magnetic fields.

WFIWFI sensors are typically needed at the weld gun side of the welding procedure when MIG welding is performed. This location is subject to Arc Blow that can cause a strong magnetic field at the weld wire tip location. This is the hottest location in the weld cell and typically there is an Inductive Sensor located at the end of this weld tooling.

So as you can see if a WFI sensor is not selected where there is a magnetic field present it can cause multiple cycle time problems and unnecessary downtime. For more information on WFI sensors click here.

Do’s and Don’ts For Applying Inductive Prox Sensors

Inductive proximity sensor face damage
Example of proximity sensor face damage

In my last post (We Don’t Make Axes Out of Bronze Anymore) we discussed the evolution of technologies which brought up the question, can a prox always replace a limit switch?  Not always.  Note that most proxes cannot directly switch large values of current, for example enough to start a motor, operate a large relay, or power up a high-wattage incandescent light.   Being electronic devices, most standard proxes cannot handle very high temperatures, although specialized hi-temp versions are available.

A prox is designed to be a non-contact device.  That is, it should be installed so that the target does not slam into or rub across the sensing face.  If the application is very rough and the spacing difficult to control, a prox with more sensing range should be selected.  Alternately, the prox could be “bunkered” or flush-mounted inside a heavy, protective bracket.  The target can pound on the bunker continuously, but the sensor remains safely out of harm’s way.

If direct contact with a sensor absolutely cannot be avoided, ruggedized metal-faced sensors are available that are specifically designed to handle impacts on the active surface.

Be sure to consider ambient conditions of the operating environment.  High temperature was mentioned earlier, but other harsh conditions such as disruptive electrical welding fields or high-pressure wash-down can be overcome by selecting proxes specially designed to survive and thrive in these environments.

Operationally, another thing to consider is the target material.  Common mild carbon steel is the ideal target for an inductive prox and will yield the longest sensing ranges with standard proxes.  Other metals such as aluminum, brass, copper, and stainless steel have different material properties that reduce the sensing range of a standard prox.  In these cases be sure to select a Factor 1 type proximity sensor, which can sense all metals at the same range.

We Don’t Make Axes Out of Bronze Anymore

Every technology commonly in use today exists for a reason.   Technologies have life cycles: they are invented out of necessity and are often widely used as the best available solution to a given technical problem.  For example, at one time bronze was the best available metallurgy for making long-lasting tools and weapons, and it quickly replaced copper as the material of choice.  But later on, bronze was itself replaced by iron, steel, and ultimately stainless steel.

When it comes to detecting the presence of an object, such as a moving component on a piece of machinery, the dominant technology used to be electro-mechanical limit switches.  Mechanical & electrical wear and tear under heavy industrial use led to unsatisfactory long-term reliability.  What was needed was a way to switch electrical control signal current without mechanical contact with the target – and without arcing & burning across electrical contacts.

Example of an inductive proximity sensor
Example of an inductive proximity sensor

Enter the invention of the all-electronic inductive proximity sensor.  With no moving parts and solid-state transistorized switching capability, the inductive proximity sensor solved the two major drawbacks of industrial limit switches (mechanical & electrical wear) in a single, rugged device.  The inductive proximity sensor – or “prox” for short – detects the presence of metallic targets by interpreting changes in the high-frequency electro-magnetic field emanating from its face or “active surface”.  The metal of the target disrupts the field; the sensor responds by electronically switching its output ON (target present) or OFF (target not present). The level of switched current is typically in the 200mA DC range, which is enough to trigger a PLC input or operate a small relay.

In my next post, I will explain the do’s and don’ts for applying inductive prox sensors.

Meeting the Challenges of Precision Sensing: Very Small Target Displacement

Fundamental application problem: Inductive prox sensor is latching on (or…failing to turn on)

  • The prox sensor gap is set to turn on when the target approaches, but it does not turn off when the target recedes (latching on)
  • The prox gap is opened up until sensor turns off at maximum target approach, but it fails to detect the target upon the next approach cycle
  • The prox sensor gap is set to turn on when the target approaches, but later on the operation becomes intermittent (prox fails to reliably detect the target)

Solution: High-performance miniature inductive prox sensor

Critical sensing performance specifications:

o   Low variation of switch point from sample to sample
o   Tight repeat accuracy of switch point
o   Low temperature drift of switch point
o   Low maximum hysteresis (distance between switch-on to switch-off)

Continue reading “Meeting the Challenges of Precision Sensing: Very Small Target Displacement”

The Forgotten Proximity Sensor

If someone says proximity sensor, what is the first thing that comes to mind?  My guess is inductive and justly so because they are the most used sensor in automation today.  There are other sensing technologies that use the term proximity in describing the sensing mode.  These include diffuse or proximity photo electric sensors that use the reflectivity of the object to change states and proximity mode of ultrasonic sensors that use high frequency sound waves to detect objects.  All of these sensors detect objects that are in close proximity of the sensor without making physical contact.

One of the most overlooked or forgotten proximity sensors on the market today is the capacitive sensor. Why? Perhaps it is because they have a bad reputation from when they were released years ago, as they were more susceptible to noise than most sensors.  I recently heard someone say that they don’t discuss capacitive sensors with their customers because they had a bad experience almost 10 years ago. With the advancements of technology this is no longer the case.

Continue reading “The Forgotten Proximity Sensor”

Sensors Reduce Downtime in Welding Applications

Sensors in welding cells are subject to failure because, although they are intended to be non-contact devices, they tend to be located directly in the middle of the welding process. Conditions such as damage by direct mechanical impact, erosion by hot welding slag, false tripping by accumulated slag, and high intermittent heat cause conventional sensors to fail at an excessive rate. In a previous blog post we discussed our three-step protection process.

bunkerproxProperly bunkering and protecting sensors will prolong their service life and reduce downtime. Ideally, this strategy is implemented during the design and construction of the weld cell by the equipment builder in response to buyer demands for increased process reliability. But what about currently existing production equipment that originally was built to a lower standard that is plagued with issues? It can be very difficult for a plant to find the time and personnel resources to go back and address problematic applications with better sensor mounting solutions. The job of retrofitting an entire weld cell with proper sensor protection can take two experienced people up to eight hours or more.

Continue reading “Sensors Reduce Downtime in Welding Applications”