Everything You Need to Know to be Successful at IIoT

Do you need to quickly ramp up your IIoT knowledge? Do you want to know why manufacturers are investing in IIoT? For years this blog has shared many of the individual values that smart manufacturing, Industry 4.0 and the Industrial Internet of Things can bring to manufacturers. I am going to quickly summarize the key findings and provide links to the full entries so you can easily have at your fingertips all of the advice you need to be successful at IIoT.

  • Industry 4.0 & IIoT, who cares?!?! You should. Even in 2016, IIoT investments were rapidly growing and more than a fifth of technology budgets were being invested in data analytics, IIoT and Industry 4.0. This has not slowed down in 2018!
  • 5 Common IIoT Mistakes and How to Avoid Them. The first point is the best point, every IIoT project that ignores the IT department is doomed for failure. IT & OT must work closely together for a successful data project in the factory.
  • Capture vs Control – The Hidden Value of True IIoT Solutions. In automation, everything seems to revolve around the PLC. This is very much an Industry 3.0 way of thinking. As we take on the next industrial revolution, devices can talk to each other in new and incredible ways, and we can capture data without impacting a working production line or modifying PLC code.
  • JSON Objects and How They Can Streamline an IIoT Application. How the data is captured is important to understand when you are ready to take action and implement your first project. By utilizing web tools like JSON, we can effectively capture data for IIoT applications.
  • What does that “Ready for IIoT” tag really mean? But how do I select a device that is going to be actually ready for IIoT? Features like condition monitoring, automatic configuration and scalability make for robust IIoT projects that can stand the test of time.

When you are convinced and ready to take action on an IIoT project kickoff for an Industry 4.0 team, take a look at the blogs below which can help you make an action plan for success and get buy-in from management.

  • How to Balance the IIoT Success Equation. What should you and your team be focusing on? How do we set a strategy, manage data, and take action to run a successful project? All of these need to be in balance and planned for to have long term vitality in your IIoT investments.
  • How do I justify an IIoT investment to my boss? We can show ROI through reduced downtime, by tying our project to corporate goals of productivity or utilization and you can point out that your competitors are heavily investing in this topic.
  • Enabling the Visibility Provided by the Industrial Internet of Things. And last but not least, there is a seriously strong technology available on the market from virtually every automation vendor that enables and scales IIoT like no other. That technology is IO-Link. With IO-Link you can create visibility down to every sensor in the plant and gain the flexibility and reliability that you need for sustainable competitiveness in the global market.

To learn more about IO-Link and how it enables machine builders and manufacturers to be successful with IIoT, check out this interactive infographic.

How to Simplify Wiring in Process-Related Applications

If you have ever been on a process or power plant during commissioning or in case of a fault, you have probably asked yourself how to simplify wiring in process-related applications. In these industrial segments, engineers often encounter complex structures and are confronted with long signal paths. Individual subsystems, equipped with local programmable logic controllers (PLCs) or remote terminal units (RTUs), are usually connected via bus systems to the control room and SCADA system, whereby diagnostic tools are available for this network.

The fun starts with troubleshooting on the subsystem level. The individual sensors and actuators are still very often wired with copper in the traditional manner. This means that there are thick cable bundles in cable ducts, and the individual conductors at the cable ends must be terminated correctly and securely. Special care must be taken with analog signals, as a missing or incorrectly connected shield can also cause signal or measurement errors. Troubleshooting under these conditions can be very nerve-wracking (if all eyes are on you) and expensive (production or power downtime).

There are some markets where there are both strong automotive and process industries. Engineers who change sides are bringing alternative field wiring approaches, such as ASi and IO-Link with them. Since these technicians are familiar with the advantages of commissioning and troubleshooting in the production line, they have no reservations about implementation. So let’s take a look at the other side:

In the past in factory automation, parallel image11wiring has been used.

As product life-cycles are getting shorter and availability has to be high, there is a greater need for modular systems.

Therefore on the sensor/actor level, they are implementing IO-Link  more and more, which some people already call the USB port of automation systems. Some advantages of IO-Link include:

  • Flexibility in connecting to a wide variety of devices through the same M12 connector. The unshielded cable and robust digital signal effectively conquer issues such as line interference and overcome flexing or bending restrictionsimage22
  • Digitized analog values (from 4-20 mA, 0-10 V, PT100/1000, thermocouple Type J/K) instead of analog signals
  • Additional diagnostic information directly from hubs and sensors/actuators
  • Possibility to adapt the host bus system to other countries or customer demands. Only the master module has to be exchanged (most of the wiring diagram will stay the same)

This interesting technical report by Andritz Hydro (Austria) shows how IO-Link was successfully implemented in a hydro power project: Powering Africa! (more information about IO-Link solutions).

What does that “Ready for IIoT” tag really mean?

These days almost every smart industrial device that comes to the market is advertised as “ready for IIoT.” But what does it actually mean? Before we get too technical, we should look at what the objectives are for IIoT and why it is important to the industrial age of our time.

In a previous post, “The promise of the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)“, we highlighted features such as Virtual IP address, to help address several things that plant maintenance and management would like to achieve. This blog touches those topics in a different perspective.

The concept of the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), or Industry 4.0, applies to the future of industrial automation, and these concepts heavily rely on the interoperability of a wide variety of devices and systems that communicate large amounts of data. This data is important because IIoT promises superior efficiency of machines and personalized manufacturing. Personalized manufacturing – also known as micro batch production or lot size one – means connecting with the customers at an individual level rather than connecting to masses. If efficiency and customization in production are the end goals or prime objectives for IIoT, these questions must be answered: What type of data would be necessary? Where and how is that data obtainable? In other words, what are the capabilities or characteristics of the device or system that really qualify as being “ready for IIoT”? Does simply providing an Ethernet connection to the device or adding a webserver qualify the device for IIoT? The answer is NO!

In my opinion, the following 5 key characteristics/capabilities, depending of course on the end user’s objectives, would qualify for being “ready for IIoT” tag.

If an end-user of automation wants to run the plant efficiently, the device or system should be able to provide information regarding; (1) Condition Monitoring, and (2) Automatic Parameterization

  1. Condition Monitoring enables predictive maintenance and eliminates unplanned downtime. Is the PLC or automation controller the right place for determining predictive maintenance? Maybe not. The PLC should focus on making sure the system is running effectively. Adding more non-application related stuff to the PLC may disrupt what is truly important. In most cases you would need a different PC or server to do this pattern analysis throughout the plant. A system or device with the “ready for IIoT” tag should be able to collect and provide that information to a higher level controls system/server. An example would be a power supply with IO-Link. Through the IO-Link master it tells the system about the stress or ambient temperature and predicts its lifetime.
  2. Automatic configuration or parameterization of sensors and systems. This feature enables plug-n-play benefit so that replacing devices is easy and the system automatically configures the replaced device to reduce downtime.

As IT and Controls Engineering work closer together, there are other characteristics of the devices that become important.

  1. Configurability of sensors and production line beyond controller of the system: Automation controllers in use today have physical limits of memory and logic. Today manufacturers are running multiple batches of different products on the same line which means more change over and more downtime. If the devices could allow for quick line change configurations such as set point changes for your sensors, different pressures on fluids, different color detections for the parts or even the ability to provide you with detection of the physical format change, that would significantly reduce your changeover times. In a PLC or controller, you can only build logic for factors known today (for ex. the number of configurations), but in the near future there will be additional product configurations. To be truly ready for the IIoT, you need devices that can be configured (with proper authorizations) in multiple ways. A webserver might be one of the ways – but that also has its limitations. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is widely used with several of the network management software tools in the IT world. OPC UA is another open communication protocol in industrial space. JSON is a protocol for cloud interface among many others. A device that can offer connectivity, via SNMP, OPC UA, JSON or other such open formats, to connect to other network software tools to gather information or configuration would solve several of these challenges without burdening the existing PLC or controller logic. In other words, these types of interfaces can connect your machine directly to an MRP or similar enterprise-level system which would make production floors much more efficient for quick changeovers.
  2. Capability for asset tracking, and quick troubleshooting: These features become important when there are hundreds of parameters changing and configurations evolving as your system becomes smarter and more efficient. To ensure right things are happening down the line, error-proofing your system becomes essential, and this involves additional information tracking. So the systems or solutions you choose should have these features.
  3. Scalability for the future: This characteristic can be interpreted in many different ways. But, in this blog it refers to adding features and functions as the need arises and building in capability to adapt to these changes is needed so that you are not starting from scratch again when the business needs to evolve again.

So, as we move into this new era of manufacturing, it is important to understand what the “ready for IIoT” tag on the device you are investing in means, and how it is helping you become more efficient or helping you connect to your customer one-on-one. Using IIoT to implement an ‘Enable and Scale’ plan would be the best way to meet the ever-evolving needs for the plant floor.

To learn more about IIoT and Industry 4.0 visit www.balluff.us.

JSON Objects and How They Can Streamline an IIoT Application

In web development, JSON objects are a programmer’s dream come true. JSON, or JavaScript Object Notation, is much similar to XML (EXtensible Markup Language) in that it’s used as a standard format to organize and transfer data across multiple programming languages. For example, say you want to send sensor data from a SQL database to a JavaScript front end. JavaScript doesn’t know SQL syntax and SQL doesn’t know JavaScript syntax. How do these different languages communicate? JSON/XML will act as a middle ground between the two allowing them to talk to each other. When given a choice between the two, I’m always going to pick JSON objects as they are much more efficient than XML. They are shorter in length and easier for computers and people to interpret. Here’s what 3 sensors would look like in XML versus JSON:

xml
Example of XML
json
Example of JSON

dpropHow does this apply to the Industrial Internet of Things? The JSON format for data transfer is so universal that IO-Link modules host it on a web server. This server is accessible by entering the IP address of the module. The module data can be seen in JSON format by modifying the IP address and adding “/dprop.jsn” into the URL of a web browser (i.e. 192.168.0.1/dprop.jsn). You should see something similar to the image on the right.

reqqresarchThe “dprop” stands for data propagation or simply the movement of data from one source to multiple sources. This data is delivered with a standard request-response system. Say you’re writing some software that uses the sensor data as variables. All that’s needed to get that sensor data is a few lines of code that send a request to the module which in turn responds with your data.

opcuaHow does this differ from the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) application frameworks from my past blogs? Previously, we discussed using OPC UA software to subscribe to PLC data and forwarding this data to a SQL database. From there, the application would query SQL for the data and render it appropriately for the user experience. Using JSON objects, we entirely eliminate the need for SQL or OPC UA software by accessing the data directly from the module. This not only makes the application independent from the PLC but also uses much less network traffic. However, using JSON objects, we can only subscribe to data from IO Link devices.

All acronyms aside, there are a million different ways to structure an IIoT application. The best fitting architecture depends on the environment. Systems with standard input/output will most likely need some form of communication with the controller. IO-Link systems will streamline this process by allowing the user to directly access the module’s IO Link data. How you go about building your application is entirely up to you. In the end, however, having this information readily available via the Industrial Internet of Things will be more beneficial than you could have ever imagined.

To learn more about IIoT visit www.balluff.us.

5 Common IIoT Mistakes and How to Avoid Them

IIoT is the perfect solution for all your data accessibility needs, right? If you check out my previous blogs, I discussed the many benefits of using the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) to remotely access data. However, if not used properly, IIoT can get you into some trouble. Let’s review 5 common mistakes to avoid when building your IIoT application.

1. Excluding your IT department
It’s crucial to make sure your Information Technology group is involved in this project. IIoT applications can be very taxing on your network. It’s easy to forget some key aspects like bandwidth and network traffic when developing your application. But when your application is finished, your IT department is going to want to know what network resources that are being used. Some questions they might ask include:

  • How many potential clients will the server have at any given time?
  • What is the max refresh rate of your application?
  • How frequent do you query the SQL server?
  • How are your queries structured?
  • What might be some vulnerabilities on this application?
  • What measures are you taking to protect these vulnerabilities?

It’s going to be a lot easier if they are included right away so everyone has a good understanding of what resources are available and how to protect them.

2. Excluding OT and Controls Engineers
Similar to the IT department, it’s important to include the controls engineer especially if you plan on hosting data from a PLC. The controls engineer is going to want to determine what data is publicly available and what data should be kept private. Some questions the controls engineer(s) might ask include:

  • What is your application trying to show?
  • What PLC data do you want to use for this?
  • Is your application going to write data to the PLC?
  • Do any modifications need to be made to the PLC code?

Keep in mind that any modifications that need to be made to the PLC will probably have to go through the controls engineer. This is to ensure that no code changes on the PLC will impact the efficiency and safety of production.

3. Running out of date software
Software that you write and the software that your application relies on should always be up to date. In other words, if you use a module or library in your code, it’s important to make sure you have the most up to date version. Also, it’s important to keep updating your application for additional security and functionality. Out of date software can lead to potential application crashes or even vulnerabilities for cyber attacks. Keep in mind, an application that runs on out of date software makes the server host vulnerable as well as its clients.

IIoT_Pyramid4. Unorganized data flow
Data flow is an important concept to consider early on in the development of your application. Say you have a server forwarding PLC data to a SQL database that is then utilized in a web application. The web application acts as a historian and analyzes data change over time. Is it better to calculate the data in the back-end application, the SQL database, the server forwarding the data or the PLC? The answer depends on the situation but typically, it’s best to keep the data calculations as close to the source as possible. For example, say your back-end application calculates percentages based on yesterday’s production compared to today’s. In this situation, if the back-end application crashes, you lose historian calculations. Typically, a SQL database is much more reliable as far as downtime and crashes and it will run whether your back-end application is functional or not. Therefore, it would be better to do these calculations in the SQL database rather than the back-end script. Continuing this concept, what if the PLC could do this calculation? Now the forwarding server, the SQL database, and the back-end script can all crash and you would still have your historian data for when they go back up. For this reason, the closer to the source of data you get, the more reliable your calculations based on that data will be.

5. Unprotected sensitive data
Possibly one of the most important things to remember when developing your application. Even simple applications that just display PLC data can give a hacker enough for an attack. Think about this IoT scenario: Say I have a server that hosts data from my personal home such as whether or not my front door is locked. This information is important to me if I want to check if someone forgot to lock the front door. But to a burglar, this data is just as useful if not more as he/she can now check the status of my door without having to leave their car. If I don’t protect this data, I am openly advertising to the world when my front door is unlocked. This is why encryption is crucial for sensitive data. This is also why it’s important to discuss you project with the controls engineer. Data that seems harmless might actually be detrimental to host publicly.

Data accessibility is evolving from a convenience to a necessity. Everyone’s in a hurry to get their data into the cloud but keeping these ideas in mind early on in the application development process will save everyone a headache later on. That way, IIoT really can be the perfect solution for all you data accessibility needs.

To learn more about IIoT visit www.balluff.us.

The Importance of Data Accessibility with IIoT

20160809_100331 (1) Typically a college student is asked two questions: “What are you studying?” and “What would you like to do with your degree?” In my case, I always answer with “Computer Science” and “I have no idea”. Lately, the field that has grabbed my interest the most is the Internet of Things (IoT). The concept of data transfer and communication between ordinary utilities is going to revolutionize the way we go about our day to day tasks. Home automation is a key example of this. We have found ways to expedite those pesky tasks that nobody enjoys doing by simply automating them.

I’ve come to realize that there is data everywhere; we just need to take the opportunity to use it. I’ve done this in a few small side projects around my apartment. Is the door locked? Are my lights on? Did the refrigerator door completely close? These are all examples of data that is useful to me at any point in time. The trick is making it available. Using a low power microcontroller and a few sensors, I’m able to host this data and view it at any point in time. IoT has the capability of effectively improving our energy efficiency, security, and productivity simply by making data readily available.

IoT screenLikewise, these same concepts apply to industrial automation. I’ve spent the last few months developing a web application to demonstrate Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT).  The web app simply hosts a live feed of data from a conveyor system. From any computer on the network, we can see crucial data such as conveyor accumulation, sensor status or even maintenance needs.  Once this data is made available, we can even automate the analysis. For example, on a conveyor, we can look at the number of packages that go by every day. A simple script that increments by one for every passing object can give a very accurate representation of day to day productivity. More intense algorithms could analyze trends in mass quantities of data return valuable results. All of this is done simply by making data continuously accessible.

According to Business Insider, by 2020, there will be 34 billion devices connected to the internet and that there will be $6 trillion spent on incorporating and integrating IoT.  As a student with a passion for technology, I see a lot of potential in this field.  So next time I’m asked what I plan on doing with my degree, I might say an IoT developer. It’s a fascinating subject that only has room to grow.

To learn more about IIoT visit www.balluff.us.

Industry 4.0 & IIoT, who cares?!?! You should.

(If you aren’t sure what Industry 4.0 or IIoT (Industrial Internet of Things) are, take a look at these previous blog entries.)

I’m amazed at all the research published each week presenting the value Industry 4.0 and IIoT are bringing to manufacturing.  And the articles about Industry 4.0 and IIoT are not just in industry rags, there are mainstream publications like Fortune & Forbes who are aware of and presenting the power of Industry 4.0 to the masses.

But why should anyone even care?

Looking backwards a decade, no one should be surprised that an explosion of data has occurred.  In 2013 the IMS found the Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of Ethernet-based automation components was 16.4 percent in 2012.  It was outpacing fieldbus growth dramatically in every category and predicted strong CAGR through 2016.  And taking a look forward provides just as exciting an outlook in the global industrial Ethernet market as Technavio is expecting growth at a CAGR of more than 15% for 2016 through 2020!

industry4.0-2So as I look at the economic effects of IIoT, Morgan Stanley sees: investments in the automation industry are expected to grow at a faster pace than the GDP, capital budgets for IIoT type investments will grow 18% and greater than 70% of respondents believe IIoT is an important strategy for their company.  And with 73% of companies investing more than 20% of their technology budget on Big Data analytics and growing, this trend toward Industry 4.0 does not seem to be letting up.

But why are manufacturer’s making these investments?

This infographic really summarizes well how I feel our situation in the US today is laid out.

Infographic

We need upgrades and investment in US manufacturing infrastructure.  And to remain successful we need to improve production efficiency and evolve towards flexible manufacturing processes.  In a recent survey from SCM World the benefits of Smart Manfucaturing and can provide a 48% reduction in unplanned downtime from IIoT solutions. WOW!  Can you imagine the kinds of investments we could make if we weren’t throwing our money into the downtime fire?  In this same survey close to two thirds of respondents said they are ready now or will be in 5 years for implementation of IIoT solutions.

The kind of focus and growth I’m reading about every week is driving investments and benefits for all stakeholders in manufacturing and it would be smart to take a look at where your company stacks up.

If you are interested in seeing how Balluff enables & scales Industry 4.0 and IIoT, visit our website at www.balluff.us.

Predictive Maintenance for Zen State of Manufacturing

Industry4.0In a previous entry, Mission Industry 4.0 @ Balluff, I explained that the two primary objectives for Balluff’s work in the area of Industry 4.0 are to help customers achieve high production efficiencies in their  automation and achieve  ‘batch size one’ production.

There are several levers that can be adjusted to achieve high levels of manufacturing efficiencies in the realm of IIoT (Industrial Internet of Things). These levers may include selecting quality of production equipment, lean production processes, connectivity and interoperability of devices, and so on. Production efficiency in the short term can be measured by how fast row materials can be processed into the final product – or how fast we deliver goods from the time the order comes in. The later portion depends more on the entire value-chain of the organization. Let’s focus today’s discussion on manufacturing – inside the plant itself.  The long-term definition of production efficiency in the context of manufacturing incorporates the effectiveness of the production system or the automation at hand. What that means is the long-term production efficiency involves the health of the system and its components in harmony with the other levers mentioned above.

The Zen state of manufacturing – nothing important will come up on Google for this as I made this phrase up. It is the perfect state of the entire manufacturing plant that continues production without hiccups all days, all shifts, every day. Does it mean zero-maintenance? Absolutely not, regular maintenance is necessary. It is one of those ‘non-value added but necessary’ steps in the lean philosophy.  Everyone knows the benefits of maintenance, so what’s new?

Well, all manufacturing facilities have a good, in some cases very strictly followed maintenance schedule, but these plants still face unplanned downtimes ranging from minutes to hours. Of course I don’t need to dwell on the cost associated with unplanned downtime. In most cases, there are minor reasons for the downtime such as a bad sensor connection, or cloudy lens on the vision sensor, etc. What if these components could alert you well in advance so that you could fix it before they go down? This is where Predictive Maintenance (PdM) comes in. In a nutshell, PdM uses actual equipment-performance data to determine the condition of the equipment so that the maintenance can be scheduled, based on the state of the equipment. This approach promises cost savings over “time-based” preventive maintenance.

PowerSuppliesIt is not about choosing predictive maintenance over preventive maintenance. I doubt you could achieve the Zen state with just one or the other. Preventive and predictive maintenance are both important – like diet and exercise. While preventive maintenance focuses on eliminating common scenarios that could have dramatic impact on the production for long time, predictive maintenance focuses on prolonging the life of the system by reducing costs associated with unnecessary maintenance.  For example, it is common practice in manufacturing plants to routinely change power supplies every 10 years, even though the rated life of a power supply under prescribed conditions is 15 years. That means as a preventive measure the plants are throwing away 30% life left on the power supply. In other words, they are throwing away 30% of the money they spent on purchasing these power supplies. If the power supplies can talk, they could probably save you that money indicating that “Hey, I still have 30% life left, I can go until next time you stop the machine for changing oil/grease in that robot!”

In summary, to achieve the zen state of manufacturing, it is important to understand the virtues of predictive maintenance and condition monitoring of your equipment. To learn more visit www.balluff.us.

How do I see PLC data from my smartphone?

From my smartphone, I can do anything from making coffee to adjusting my home thermostat. This wave of appliances and other physical devices connecting and communicating through a network is known as the Internet of Things and it’s playing a crucial role in industry. With the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) we can now monitor PLC data without ever intruding on the PLC. Let’s take a look at how I implemented PLC tags on a web application.

IIoT_computer The first step is to download OPC UA historian software. OPC UA stands for Open Platform Communications Unified Architecture. OPC is a client/server communication standard that was made as a gateway between the PLC and a Windows PC. The UA was added as an upgrade that allowed communication across other operating systems such as Linux and iOS along with other added functionality improvements. Once this software is running and the PLC and PC are communicating, we can work on hosting that data.

IIoT_StructureHosting the controller data can seem like a daunting task at first due to the many different options in software and programming languages to use. For example: Ruby, PHP, ASP, ASP.NET and much more are available for back-end development. For my web app, I used SQL to host the data from the OPC UA software. As for the back-end, I went with node.js because it has great packages for working with SQL; in addition to the fact that node.js uses JavaScript syntax which I’m familiar with. The front end of the app was written with HTML and CSS with JavaScript for interactivity. With all these elements in place, I was ready to host the server on the PC to host PLC data.

With smart IO-Link sensors on our conveyor I was able to look at diagnostic and functional data in the PLC and setup an interactive screen at the conveyor for viewing production and maintenance information.

And now I can even check my sensor outputs with the same smartphone that just made my coffee and adjusted my office’s temperature.

IIoT_warehouse

You can learn more about the Industrial Internet of Things at www.balluff.us.

The promise of the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT)

Things to Avoid and Pursue

There is a long list of activities Control Engineers and Plant Managers avoid like the plague…

  • Modifying PLC code
  • Adding an HMI
  • Modifying HMI screens
  • Adding additional Indicators

On the other side, there is a list of activities they need to do to keep their plant on the forefront of lean manufacturing…

  • Providing real-time operational visibility
  • Adding new manufacturing/process functions
  • Adding/updating Error Proofing devices
  • Providing preventative and predictive maintenance information
Scaling up to IIoT with IO-Link and Balluff's Virtual IP Address Concept
Scaling up to IIoT with IO-Link and Balluff’s Virtual IP Address Concept

Fortunately, the IIoT can help you avoid what you want to avoid and do more of what you need to do. The promise of IIoT can be realized with an IO-Link Architecture featuring Balluff’s Virtual IP address concept. This scalable architecture allows the PLC to do its thing while an independent PC (the one on your desk for example) can access the IO devices directly to get at operational and process data not always available in the PLC.

Learn more at www.balluff.us/io-link.