How TSN boosts efficiency by setting priorities for network bandwidth

As manufacturers move toward Industry 4.0 and the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), common communication platforms are needed to achieve the next level of efficiency boost. Using common communication platforms, like Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN), significantly reduces the burden of separate networks for IT and OT without compromising the separate requirements from both areas of the plant/enterprise.

TSN is the mother of all network protocols. It makes it possible to share the network bandwidth wisely by allocating rules of time sensitivity. For example, industrial motion control related communication, safety communication, general automation control communication (I/O), IT software communications, video surveillance communication, or Industrial vision system communication would need to be configured based on their time sensitivity priority so that the network of switches and communication gateways can effectively manage all the traffic without compromising service offerings.

If you are unfamiliar with TSN, you aren’t alone. Manufacturers are currently in the early adopter phase. User groups of all major industrial networking protocols such as ODVA (CIP and EtherNet/IP), PNO (for PROFINET and PROFISAFE), and CLPA (for CC-Link IE) are working toward incorporating TSN abilities in their respective network protocols. CC-Link IE Field has already released some of the products related to CC-Link IE Field TSN.

With TSN implementation, the current set of industrial protocols do not go away. If a machine uses today’s industrial protocols, it can continue to use that. TSN implementation has some gateway modules that would allow communicating the standard protocols while adding TSN to the facility.

While it would be optimal to have one universal protocol of communication across the plant floor, that is an unlikely scenario. Instead, we will continue to see TSN flavors of different protocols as each protocol has its own benefits of things it does the best. TSN allows for this co-existence of protocols on the same network.


The Emergence of Device-level Safety Communications in Manufacturing

Manufacturing is rapidly changing, driven by trends such as low volume/high mix, shorter lifecycles, changing labor dynamics and other global factors. One way industry is responding to these trends is by changing the way humans and machines safely work together, enabled by updated standards and new technologies including safety communications.

In the past, safety systems utilized hard-wired connections, often resulting in long cable runs, large wire bundles, difficult troubleshooting and inflexible designs. The more recent shift to safety networks addresses these issues and allows fast, secure and reliable communications between the various components in a safety control system. Another benefit of these communications systems is that they are key elements in implementing the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and Industry 4.0 solutions.

Within a typical factory, there are three or more communications levels, including an Enterprise level (Ethernet), a Control level (Ethernet based industrial protocol) and a Device/sensor level (various technologies). The popularity of control and device level industrial communications for standard control systems has led to strong demand for similar safety communications solutions.

Safety architectures based on the most popular control level protocols are now common and often reside on the same physical media, thereby simplifying wiring and control schemes. The table, below, includes a list of the most common safety control level protocols with their Ethernet-based industrial “parent” protocols and the governing organizations:

Ethernet Based Safety Protocol Ethernet Based Control Protocol Governing Organization
CIP Safety Ethernet IP Open DeviceNet Vendor Association (ODVA)
Fail Safe over EtherCAT (FSoE) EtherCAT EtherCAT Technology Group
CC-Link IE Safety CC-Link IE CC-Link Partner Association
openSAFETY Ethernet POWERLINK Ethernet POWERLINK Standardization Group (EPSG)


These Ethernet-based safety protocols are high speed, can carry fairly large amounts of information and are excellent for exchanging data between higher level devices such as safety PLCs, drives, CNCs, HMIs, motion controllers, remote safety I/O and advanced safety devices. Ethernet is familiar to most customers, and these protocols are open and supported by many vendors and device suppliers – customers can create systems utilizing products from multiple suppliers. One drawback, however, is that devices compatible with one protocol are not compatible with other protocols, requiring vendors to offer multiple communication connection options for their devices. Other drawbacks include the high cost to connect, the need to use one IP address per connected device and strong influence by a single supplier over some protocols.

Device level safety protocols are fairly new and less common, and realize many of the same benefits as the Ethernet-based safety protocols while addressing some of the drawbacks. As with Ethernet protocols, a wide variety of safety devices can be connected (often from a range of suppliers), wiring and troubleshooting are simplified, and more data can be gathered than with hard wiring. The disadvantages are that they are usually slower, carry much less data and cover shorter distances than Ethernet protocols. On the other hand, device connections are physically smaller, much less expensive and do not use up IP addresses, allowing the integration into small, low cost devices including E-stops, safety switches, inductive safety sensors and simple safety light curtains.

Device level Safety Protocol Device level Standard Protocol Open or Proprietary Governing Organization
Safety Over IO-Link/IO-Link Safety* IO-Link Semi-open/Open Balluff/IO-Link Consortium
AS-Interface Safety at Work (ASISafe) AS-Interface (AS-I) Open AS-International
Flexi Loop Proprietary Sick GmbH
GuardLink Proprietary Rockwell Automation

* Safety Over IO-Link is the first implementation of safety and IO-Link. The specification for IO-Link Safety was released recently and devices are not yet available.

The awareness of, and the need for, device level safety communications will increase with the desire to more tightly integrate safety and standard sensors into control systems. This will be driven by the need to:

  • Reduce and simplify wiring
  • Add flexibility to scale up, down or change solutions
  • Improve troubleshooting
  • Mix of best-in-class components from a variety of suppliers to optimize solutions
  • Gather and distribute IIoT data upwards to higher level systems

Many users are realizing that neither an Ethernet-based safety protocol, nor a device level safety protocol can meet all their needs, especially if they are trying to implement a cost-effective, comprehensive safety solution which can also support their IIoT needs. This is where a safety communications master (or bridge) comes in – it can connect a device level safety protocol to a control level safety protocol, allowing low cost sensor connection and data gathering at the device level, and transmission of this data to the higher-level communications and control system.

An example of this architecture is Safety Over IO-Link on PROFISafe/PROFINET. Devices such as safety light curtains, E-stops and safety switches are connected to a “Safety Hub” which has implemented the Safety Over IO-Link protocol. This hub communicates via a “black channel” over a PROFINET/IO-Link Master to a PROFISafe PLC. The safety device connections are very simple and inexpensive (off the shelf cables & standard M12 connectors), and the more expensive (and more capable) Ethernet (PROFINET/PROFISafe) connections are only made where they are needed: at the masters, PLCs and other control level devices. And an added benefit is that standard and safety sensors can both connect through the PROFINET/IO-Link Master, simplifying the device level architecture.


Combining device level and control level protocols helps users optimize their safety communications solutions, balancing cost, data and speed requirements, and allows IIoT data to be gathered and distributed upwards to control and MES systems.


Increase Competitiveness with RFID in the Intralogistics Industry

In times of globalization and high labor costs it is a challenge to increase competitiveness in the fashion industry. Within a warehouse, an RFID system supports a high degree of automation as well as short transport distances. To supply dealers and to keep their facility profitable, one of the most successful fashion companies in the world has built a highly modern hanging garment distribution center. Let’s take a look at how they successfully implemented RFID technology to improve their processes.

Separate and sort clothes with just one hybrid module (2D code + RFID)

Within this distribution center 45,000 of these innovative clothes hanger adapters (L-VIS) are used. They replace the previous trolley-based logistics approach by allowing the transportation of a number of different garments that have the same destination.

L-VIS, clothes hanging adapter made by P.E.P. Fördertechnik

With the investment in some additional space in the so-called buffer or storage zone, and by providing empty trolleys at various locations to keep the product flow moving, this project is successfully accomplished. A major advantage of this system, is the usability over the entire intralogistics chain. From receiving, to the hanging storage, to the sorter for single item identification, and from there as a transport unit to shipping.

The clothes hanger contains an RFID chip, that is automatically read by the conveying technology, and the 2D-code. This code is read manually by employees with a portable acquisition unit. The code can be DMC (Data Matrix Code), QR-Code, or any other optical code standard.

HUGO BOSS garment distribution center (Metzingen, Germany)

Information exchange without visual contact

A high frequency RFID chip is installed. With this identification system, neither direct alignment nor contact is needed to enable data exchange via nearfield communication. Non-contact identification is extremely reliable and wear-free. The identification system consists of a rugged data carrier, a read/write head and an RFID processor unit. The processor unit communicates to the control system via Profibus, but could be accomplished with ProfiNet or EtherNet/IP as well.

BIS-M RFID processor unit

The following table gives you an overview of types of Radio Frequency Identification solutions that are available on the market:

Common Types Low Frequency Low Frequency High Frequency Ultra High Frequency
Frequency 70/455 kHz 125 kHz 13.56 MHz 860 … 960 MHz
Short description Dedicated solution to tool identification in Metal-Working industry. Standard solutions for simple Track & Trace applications. Fast & reliable – even with high volumes of data in medium distances in assembly, production and intralogistics. Identification at large distances and bunching capability for current material flow concept.

For the customer, the decision to choose this particular system among others was the separation between the processor and read/write head. In a widespread facility it would not make sense to have a decoder with 30 read/write heads attached. By interfacing two read/write heads per processor, it is possible to track the travel of a transport unit over the entire conveyor line as well as track within the aisles between the individual shelves.

An additional advantage of the system implemented is the housing options. The L-VIS carrier and the 30 mm read/write head are an ideal match. The simple mounting of the processors and ready-to-use connection were of high value to the system integrators. In the sorting area, a 2D code was supplemented by the RFID tags to reach speeds of up to 0.6 and 0.7 m/s. This would probably not have been possible with the installation of a corresponding camera technology.

Experiences have shown, that RFID projects need a lot of support. Consultation and assistance from true experts can be provided by our team. Learn more about RFID technology here.