The Benefits of Guided Changeover in Packaging

Today’s consumer packaged goods (CPG) market is driving the need for greater agility and flexibility in packaging machinery.  Shorter, more customized runs create more frequent machine changeover.  Consequently, reducing planned and unplanned downtime at changeover is one of the key challenges CPG companies are working to improve.

Many packaging machine builders are now providing fully automated changeover, where motors move pieces into the correct position upon recipe change.  This has proven to be a winning solution, however, not every application can accommodate motors, especially those on older machines.

Guided changeover represents an opportunity to modify or retrofit existing equipment to improve agility and flexibility on older machines that are not yet ready to be replaced.

An affordable intermediate step between fully manual and fully automated changeover: 

A measurement sensor can be added to provide position feedback on parts that require repositioning for changeover.  By using indicator lights, counters or displays at the point of use, the operator is provided with visual guidance to reposition the moving part.  Only once all parts are in the correct position can the machine start up and run.

By utilizing this concept, CPG companies can realize several key benefits:

  • Reduced planned downtime: Adding guidance reduces the amount of time it takes to move parts into the correct position.
  • Reduced unplanned downtime: Providing operator guidance minimizes mistakes, avoiding jams and other problems caused by misalignment.
  • Reduced waste: Operators can “dial in” moving parts quickly and precisely.  This allows the machine to be fully operational sooner, minimizing runoff and scrap.
  • Improved operator training: Providing operator guidance helps CPG companies deal with inevitable workforce attrition.  New operators can be quickly trained on changeover procedures.

Selecting the correct sensor

A variety of sensor technologies can be used to create guide changeover; it’s really a matter of fit, form and function.  Common technologies used in changeover position applications include linear positioning transducers  and encoders.  Other devices like inductive and photoelectric distance sensors can be used with some creativity to solve challenging applications.

Available mounting space and environmental conditions should be taken into consideration when selecting the correct device.  Sensors with enhanced IP ratings are available for harsh environmental conditions and washdown.

Analog devices are commonly used to retrofit machines with older PLCs, while IO-Link can be used in place of analog for a fully digital solution, enabling bi-directional communication between the sensor and controller for condition monitoring, automatic device replacement and parameter changes.

Tackle Quality Issues and Improve OEE in Vision Systems for Packaging

Packaging industries must operate with the highest standards of quality and productivity. Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE) is a scoring system widely used to track production processes in packaging. An OEE score is calculated using data specifying quality (percent of good parts), performance (performance of nominal speed) and equipment availability (percent of planned uptime).

Quality issues can directly impact the customer, so it is essential to have processes in place to ensure the product is safe to use and appropriately labeled before it ships out. Additionally, defects to the packaging like dents, scratches and inadequate labeling can affect customer confidence in a product and their willingness to buy it at the store. Issues with quality can lead to unplanned downtime, waste and loss of productivity, affecting all three metrics of the OEE score.

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Traditionally, visual inspections and packaging line audits have been used to monitor quality, however, this labor can be challenging in high volume applications. Sensing solutions can be used to partly automate the process, but complex demands, including multiple package formats and product formulas in the same line, require the flexibility that machine vision offers. Machine vision is also a vital component in adding traceability down to the unit in case a quality defect or product recall does occur.

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Vision systems can increase productivity in a packaging line by reducing the amount of planned and unplanned downtime for manual quality inspection. Vision can be reliably used to detect quality defects as soon as they happen. With this information, a company can make educated improvements to the equipment to improve repeatability and OEE and ensure that no defective product reaches the customers’ hands.

Some vision applications for quality assurance in packaging include:

  • Label inspection (presence, integrity, print quality, OCV/OCR)
    • Check that a label is in place, lined up correctly and free of scratches and tears. Ensure that any printed graphics, codes and text are legible and printed with the expected quality. Use a combination of OCR (Optical Character Recognition) to read a lot number, expiration date or product information, and then OCV (Optical Character Verification) to ensure legibility.
  • Primary and secondary packaging inspection for dents and damage
    Inspect bottles, cans and boxes to make sure that their geometry has not been altered during the manufacturing process. For example, check that a bottle rim is circular and has not been crushed so that the bottle cap can be put on after filling with product.
  • Safety seal/cap presence and position verification
    Verifying that a cap and/or seal has been placed correctly on a bottle, and/or that the container being used is the correct one for the formula / product being manufactured.
  • Product position verification in packages with multiple items
    In packages of solids, making sure they have been filled adequately and in the correct sequence. In pharmaceutical industries, this can be used to check that blister packs have a pill in each space, and in food industries to ensure that the correct food item is placed in each space of the package.
  • Certification of proper liquid level in containers
    For applications in which it can’t be done reliably with traditional sensing technologies, vision systems can be used to ensure that a bottle has been filled to its nominal volume.

The flexibility of vision systems allows for addressing these complex applications and many more with a well-designed vision solution.

For more information on Balluff vision solutions and applications, visit www.balluff.com.

Improve Your Feeder Bowl System (and Other Standard Equipment) with IO-Link

One of the most common devices used in manufacturing is the tried and true feeder bowl system. Used for decades, feeder bowls take bulk parts, orients them correctly and then feeds them to the next operation, usually a pick-and-place robot. It can be an effective device, but far too often, the feeder bowl can be a source of cycle-time slowdowns. Alerts are commonly used to signal when a feed problem is occurring but lack the exact cause of the slow down.

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A feed system’s feed rate can be reduced my many factors. Some of these include:

  • Operators slow to add parts to the bowl or hopper
  • Hopper slow to feed the bowl
  • Speeds set incorrectly on hopper, bowl or feed track
  • Part tolerance drift or feeder tooling out of adjustment

With today’s Smart IO-Link sensors incorporating counting and timing functions, most of the slow-down factors can be easily seen through an IIoT connection. Sensors can now time how long critical functions take. As the times drift from ideal, this information can be collected and communicated upstream.

A common example of a feed system slow-down is a slow hopper feed to the bowl. When using Smart IO-Link sensors, operators can see specifically that the hopper feed time is too long. The sensor indicates a problem with the hopper but not the bowl or feed tracks. Without IO-Link, operators would simply be told the overall feed system is slow and not see the real problem. This example is also true for the hopper in-feed (potential operator problem), feed track speed and overall performance. All critical operations are now visible and known to all.

For examples of Balluff’s smart IO-Link sensors, check out our ADCAP sensor.

Zone Defense: How to Determine If You Need a Hygienic or Washdown Solution

It goes without saying that food safety is an extremely important aspect of the food and beverage industry. While manufacturers would naturally take precautions to ensure their food products are safe to consume, they are required to follow a set of rigid guidelines and standards to ensure the safety of the foodstuffs to prevent contamination.

CaptureTo determine which rating, standards or certifications are required for a particular food and beverage segment, you must first consider the type of food contact zone and whether it is an open or closed process.

Food Contact Zones

The food contact zone is determined by the potential contamination that can occur based on the production equipment’s exposure to food and its byproducts.

  • Food Zone: an area intended to be exposed to direct contact with food or surfaces where food or other substances may contact and then flow, drain or drain back onto food or food contact surfaces.
  • Splash Zone: an area that is routinely exposed to indirect food contact due to splashes and spills. These areas are not intended for contact with consumable food.
  • Nonfood Zone: An area that is not exposed to food or splashes but will likely be exposed to minor dirt and debris.

Open and Closed Production

In the food and beverage industry, it is also important to discuss whether the manufacturing process is open or closed. The distinction between the two plays a significant role in determining machine cleaning requirements.

  • Closed Process: A manufacturing operation in which the food product never comes in contact with the environment. All food contact zones are sealed such as the inner surfaces of tanks, pipelines, valves, pumps and sensors.
  • Open Process: A manufacturing operation in which food does have contact with the environment outside of the machine. This requires a hygienic design of the process environment, as well as the surfaces of the apparatus and components.

Required ratings, standards and certifications

Once you know the food zone and whether the production is open or closed, it becomes simple to determine which ratings, standards or certifications are required of the machinery and apparatus in the food and beverage manufacturing process.

  • Food Contact Zone — Hygienic
    • IP69K – tested to be protected from high pressure steam cleaning per DIN40050 part 9
    • FDA – made of FDA approved materials, most often 316L stainless steel
    • 3-A – certified sanitary and hygienic equipment materials and design in the US
    • EHEDG – certified sanitary and hygienic equipment materials and design in Europe
  • Food Splash Zone — Washdown
    • IP69K – tested to be protected from high pressure steam cleaning per DIN40050 part 9
    • ECOLAB – surfaces tested to be protected from cleaning and disinfecting agents
  • Nonfood Zone — Factory Automation
    • IP67 – rated for water immersion up to a meter deep for half an hour
    • IP65 – rated as dust tight and protected against water projected from a nozzle

For more information on the requirements of the food and beverage industry, visit www.balluff.com.

Smart choices deliver leaner processes in Packaging, Food and Beverage industry

In all industries, there is a need for more flexible and individualized production as well as increased transparency and documentable processes. Overall equipment efficiency, zero downtime and the demand for shorter production runs have created the need for smart machines and ultimately the smart factory. Now more than ever, this is important in the Packaging, Food and Beverage (PFB) industry to ensure that the products and processes are clean, safe and efficient.

Take a look at how the Smart Factory can be implemented in Packaging, Food, and Beverage industries.

Updating Controls Architecture

  • Eliminates analog wiring and reduces costs by 15% to 20%
  • Simplifies troubleshooting
  • Enables visibility down to the sensor/device
  • Simplifies retrofits
  • Reduces terminations
  • Eliminates manual configuration of devices and sensors

Automating Guided Format Change and Change Parts

  • Eliminates changeover errors
  • Reduces planned downtime to perform change over
  • Reduces product waste from start-up after a change over
  • Consistent positioning every time
  • Ensures proper change parts are swapped out

Predictive Maintenance through IO-Link

  • Enhances diagnostics
  • Reduces unplanned downtime
  • Provides condition monitoring
  • Provides more accurate data
  • Reduces equipment slows and stops
  • Reduces product waste

Traceability

  • Delivers accurate data and reduced errors
  • Tracks raw materials and finished goods
  • Date and lot code accuracy for potential product recall
  • Allows robust tags to be embedded in totes, pallets, containers, and fixtures
  • Increases security with access control

Why is all of this important?

Converting a manufacturing process to a smart process will improve many aspects and cure pains that may have been encountered in the past. In the PFB industry, downtime can be very costly due to raw material having a short expiration date before it must be discarded. Therefore, overall equipment efficiency (OEE) is an integral part of any process within PFB. Simply put, OEE is the percentage of manufacturing time that is truly productive. Implementing improved controls architecture, automating change over processes, using networking devices that feature predictive maintenance, and incorporating RFID technology for traceability greatly improve OEE and reduce time spent troubleshooting to find a solution to a reoccurring problem.

Through IO-Link technology and smart devices connected to IO-Link, time spent searching for the root of a problem is greatly reduced thanks to continuous diagnostics and predictive maintenance. IO-Link systems alert operators to sensor malfunctions and when preventative maintenance is required.

Unlike preventative maintenance, which only captures 18% of machine failures and is based on a schedule, predictive maintenance relies on data to provide operators and controls personnel critical information on times when they may need to do maintenance in the future. This results in planned downtime which can be strategically scheduled around production runs, as opposed to unplanned downtime that comes with no warning and could disrupt a production run.

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Reducing the time it takes to change over a machine to a different packaging size allows the process to finish the batch quicker than if a manual change over was used, which in turn means a shorter production blog 2.20 2run for that line. Automated change over allows the process to be exact every time and eliminates the risk of operator error due to more accurate positioning.

 

 

blog 2.20 3Traceability using RFID can be a very important part of the smart PFB factory. Utilizing RFID throughout the process —tracking of raw materials, finished goods, and totes leaving the facility — can greatly increase the efficiency and throughput of the process. RFID can even be applied to change part detection to identify if the correct equipment is being swapped in or out during change over.

Adding smart solutions to a PFB production line improves efficiency, increases output, minimizes downtime and saves money.

For more information on the Smart Factory check out this blog post: The Need for Data and System Interoperability in Smart Manufacturing For a deeper dive into format change check out this blog post: Flexibility Through Automated Format Changes on Packaging Machines