Top 5 Insights from 2019

With a new year comes new innovation and insights. Before we jump into new topics for 2020, let’s not forget some of the hottest topics from last year. Below are the five most popular blogs from our site in 2019.

1. How to Select the Best Lighting Techniques for Your Machine Vision Application

How to select the best vision_LI.jpgThe key to deploying a robust machine vision application in a factory automation setting is ensuring that you create the necessary environment for a stable image.  The three areas you must focus on to ensure image stability are: lighting, lensing and material handling.  For this blog, I will focus on the seven main lighting techniques that are used in machine vision applications.

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2. M12 Connector Coding

blog 7.10_LI.jpgNew automation products hit the market every day and each device requires the correct cable to operate. Even in standard cables sizes, there are a variety of connector types that correspond with different applications.

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3. When to use optical filtering in a machine vision application

blog 7.3_LI.jpgIndustrial image processing is essentially a requirement in modern manufacturing. Vision solutions can deliver visual quality control, identification and positioning. While vision systems have gotten easier to install and use, there isn’t a one-size-fits-all solution. Knowing how and when you should use optical filtering in a machine vision application is a vital part of making sure your system delivers everything you need.

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4. The Difference Between Intrinsically Safe and Explosion Proof

5.14_LIThe difference between a product being ‘explosion proof’ and ‘intrinsically safe’ can be confusing but it is vital to select the proper one for your application. Both approvals are meant to prevent a potential electrical equipment malfunction from initiating an explosion or ignition through gases that may be present in the surrounding area. This is accomplished in both cases by keeping the potential energy level below what is necessary to start ignition process in an open atmosphere.

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5. Smart choices deliver leaner processes in Packaging, Food and Beverage industry

Smart choices deliver leaner processes in PFB_LI.jpgIn all industries, there is a need for more flexible and individualized production as well as increased transparency and documentable processes. Overall equipment efficiency, zero downtime and the demand for shorter production runs have created the need for smart machines and ultimately the smart factory. Now more than ever, this is important in the Packaging, Food and Beverage (PFB) industry to ensure that the products and processes are clean, safe and efficient.

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We appreciate your dedication to Automation Insights in 2019 and look forward to growth and innovation in 2020!

 

 

RFID for Improved Operator Accountability

One of the most fascinating parts of my job is making site visits to manufacturing plants across the country. Getting a first-hand look at how things are made in a modern manufacturing facility is nothing short of amazing. Robots whirling, automatic guided vehicles (AGV’s) navigating the floor, overhead cranes and gantries lifting tons of material over-head, flames shooting from ovens, and metal chips flying create an exciting, but sometimes dangerous, work environment. To some people this may seem like a good reason to avoid these places, but if you are fitted with the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) the chances for injury are minimal.

The safety of every human in the plant is the top priority.  This is why there are requirements to wear PPE that is suitable for the environment and the hazards within. The challenge is confirming that everyone is aware of the required equipment, and that they indeed are wearing that equipment.

This can be accomplished with a simple RFID kiosk system. When an operator scans their ID they are asked a series of questions to ensure they are wearing the correct PPE. If the operator confirms they are wearing all the required gear, they can begin work in the area they are assigned. If not, a supervisor will be notified so the correct equipment can be obtained. This method can serve as a daily reminder for what needs to be worn while holding the operator accountable.

Ultimately, it is up to the plant and occupational safety organizations to define what needs to be worn and where it should be worn, but it is the responsibility of the operator to actually wear it. The same system can be used for vendors, visitors or anyone else who ventures out on the plant floor.

Using RFID to Create Transparency in Production

To meet today’s requirements for fast delivery and infinite flexibility, many productions are already set up as flow production with work steps distributed to workstations. As a result, products can be individually adapted in order to optimally meet customer requirements.

The basic prerequisite for this is to continuously know where a product is in the process. Additionally, information should be available about the next workstation and the subsequent work step. Without technical assistance, the required information can only be generated by the employee with much effort. Additionally, you run the risk of production steps being confused and time delays occurring in the production process. One solution to meet the requirements with minimum effort and maximum reliability is to install automated product recognition by using an RFID system.

 
Automated product recognition with an RFID system

To install an RFID system one important prerequisite must be fulfilled. Each product that is planned to be tracked needs a compatible RFID data carrier. This enables an individual connection between the order number and the product, which is then stored in a database.

During the product creation, the stored connection is called up multiple times. Each time it is supplemented by further information. In this way product traceability can be ensured. The connection is initiated by an antenna of the RFID system, which recognizes the data carrier and its ID. The resulting data shows which product is at the workplace, the time stamp, the place of recognition and the order number, all of which are noted in the database.

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Communication between RFID system, database and production employee

 

Reduction of error rate and increase of efficiency in the production

In addition to ensuring traceability, the installation of an RFID system can also significantly reduce the failure rate in the production. The connection to the database allows information to move in two ways. On one hand additional information is provided, while on the other further information is created that can be processed by other systems.

The storage of the time stamp enables an analysis of the duration of each work step. This makes the identification of potential ways to improve in the production possible. If this analysis and the implementation of the system is done consequently, the efficiency in the production can be improved continuously.

 

Tracking and Traceability in Mobility: A Step Towards IIoT

In today’s highly competitive automotive environment, it is becoming increasingly important for companies to drive out operating costs in order to ensure their plants maintain a healthy operating profit.

Improved operational efficiency in manufacturing is a goal of numerous measures. For example, in Tier 1 automotive parts manufacturing it is common place to have equipment that is designed to run numerous assemblies through one piece of capital equipment (Flexible Manufacturing). In order to accommodate multiple assemblies, different tooling is designed to be placed in this capital equipment. This reduces required plant floor real-estate and the costs normally required for unidimensional manufacturing equipment. However, with this flexibility new risks are introduced, such as running the machine with incorrect tooling which can cause increased scrap levels, incorrect assembly of parts and/or destruction/damage of expensive tooling, expedited freight, outsourcing costs, increased manpower, sorting and rework costs, and more.

Having operators manually enter recipes or tooling change information introduces the Human Error of Probability (HEP).  “The typical failure rates in businesses using common work practices range from 10 to 30 errors per hundred opportunities. The best performance possible in well managed workplaces using normal quality management methods are failure rates of 5 to 10 in every hundred opportunities.” (Sondalini)

Knowing the frequency of product change-over rates, you can quickly calculate the costs of these potential errors. One means of addressing this issue is to create Smart Tooling whereby RFID tags are affixed on the tooling and read/write antennas are mounted on the machinery and integrated into the control architecture of the capital equipment. The door to a scalable solution has now been opened in which each tool is assigned a unique ID or “license plate” identifying that specific tooling. Through proper integration of the capital equipment, the plant can now identify what tooling is in place at which OP station and may only run if the correct tooling is confirmed in place. In addition, one can then move toward predictive maintenance by placing process data onto the tag itself such as run time, parts produced, and tooling rework data. Collection and monitoring of this data moves the plant towards IIoT and predictive maintenance capabilities to inform key personnel when tooling is near end of life or re-work requirement thus contributing to improved OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) rates.

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For more information on RFID, visit www.balluff.com.

*Source: Mike Sondalini, Managing Director, Lifetime Reliability Solutions, Article: Unearth the answers and solve the causes of human error in your company by understanding the hidden truths in human error rate tables

Why RFID is the VIP of 2019

The “most popular” annual lists don’t usually come out until the end of the year, but I think it is worth mentioning now three applications that have gained substantial momentum this year. With the Smart Factory concept being driven around the globe, RFID has emerged from the shadows and taken its place in the spotlight. The demand for a larger amount of data, more security, and increased visibility into the production process has launched RFID into a leading role when it comes to automation.

Machine Access Control

When considering RFID being utilized for access control, they think about readers located near doorways either outside the building or within the plant. While those readers operate much like the industrial readers, they typically cannot communicate over an industrial communication protocol like Ethernet/IP, Profinet, or IO-Link.  With an industrial access control reader one can limit access to HMIs, PLCs, and various control systems by verifying the user and allowing access to the appropriate controls.  This extra layer of security also ensures operator accountability by identifying the user.

Machine Tool ID

RFID has been used in machining centers for decades. However, it was used mostly in larger scale operations where there were acres of machines and hundreds of tools. Today it’s being used in shops with as few as one machine. The ROI is dependent on the number of tool changes in a shift; not necessarily just the number of machines and the number of tools in the building. The greater the number of tool changes, the greater the risk of data input errors, tool breakage, and even a crash.

Content verification

Since RFID is capable of reading through cardboard and plastic, it is commonly used to verify the contents of a container. Tags are fixed to the critical items in the box, like a battery pack or bag of hardware, and passed through a reader to verify their presence. If, in this case, two tags are not read at the final station then the box can be opened and supplied with the missing part before it ships. This prevents an overload on aftersales support and ensures customers get what they ordered.

While RFID is still widely used to address Work in Process (WIP), asset tracking, and logistics applications, the number of alternative applications involving RFID has skyrocketed due to an increase in demand for actionable data.  Manufacturing organizations around the world have standardized on RFID as a solution in cases where accountability, reliability and quality are critical.

 

What to Ask Before You Build an RFID System to Meet Your Traceability Needs

An industrial RFID system is a powerful solution for reliably and comprehensively documenting individual working steps in manufacturing environments. But an industrial RFID system that meets your application needs isn’t available off-the-shelf. To build the system you need, it is important to consider what problems you hope RFID will solve and what return on investments you hope to see.

RFID can deliver many benefits, including process visibility and providing data needed to better manage product quality. It can be used to improve safety, satisfaction and profit margins. It can even be used to help comply with regulatory standards or to manage product recalls. And RFID can be used in a wide range of applications from broad areas like supply management to inventory tracking to more specific applications. These improvements can improve time, cost or performance—though not typically all three.

It is essential to understand and document the goal and how improvements will be measured to in order to plan a RFID system (readers, antennas, tags, cables) to best meet those goals.

Other important questions to consider:

Will the system be centralized or de-centralized? Will the system be license plate only or contain process data on the tag?

How will the data on the tags be used?  Will the information be used to interface with a PLC, database or ERP? Will it be used to provide MES or logical functionality? Or to provide data to an HMI or web browser/cloud interface?

Will the system be required to comply with any international regulations or standards? If so, which ones: EPC Global, Class 1 Gen 2 (UHF only), ISO 15693, or 14443 (HF only)?

What environment does the system need to perform in? Will it be used indoor or outdoor? Will it be exposed to liquids (cleaning fluids, coolants, machine oils, caustics) or high or low temperatures?

Does the RFID system need to work with barcodes or any other human readable information?

What are the performance expectations for the components? What is the read/write range distance from head to tag? What is the station cycle timing? Is the tag metal-mounted? Does the tag need to be reused or be disposable? What communication bus is required?

With a clear set of objectives and goals, the mechanical and physical requirements discovered by answering the questions above, and guidance from an expert, a RFID system can be configured that meets your needs and delivers a strong return on investment.

RFID: Using Actionable Data to Make Critical Decisions

While RFID technology has been in use since the 1950s, wide-spread implementation has come in waves over the years. Beginning with military applications where it was used to identify friend or foe aircraft, to inventory control in the retail industry, and now to the manufacturing space where it is being used to manage work in process, track assets, control inventory, and aid with automatic replenishment.

The bottom line is RFID is critical in the manufacturing process. Why? Because, fundamentally, it provides actionable data that is used to make critical decisions. If your organization has not yet subscribed to RFID technology then it is getting ready to. This doesn’t mean just in the shipping and receiving area.  Wide-spread adoption is happening on the production line, in the tool room, on dies, molds, machine tools, on AGV’s, on pallets, and so much more.

Not an RFID expert? It’s ok. Start with a quick overview.

Learn about the fundamentals of a passive RFID system here.

In the past, controls engineers, quality assurance managers, and maintenance supervisors were early adopters because RFID played a critical role in giving them the data they needed. Thanks to global manufacturing initiatives like Smart Factory, Industry 4.0, the Industrial Internet of things (IIOT) and a plethora of other manufacturing buzz words, CEOs, CFOs, and COOs are driving RFID concepts today. So, while the “hands-on” members of the plant started the revolution, the guys in the corner offices quickly recognized the power of RFID and accelerated the adoption of the technology.

While there is a frenzy in the market, it is important to keep a few things in mind when exploring how RFID can benefit your organization:

  • Choose your RFID partner based on their core competency in addressing manufacturing applications
  • Make sure they have decades of experience manufacturing and implementing RFID
  • Have them clearly explain their “chain of support” from local resources to experts at the HQ.
  • Find a partner who can clearly define the benefits of RFID in your specific process (ROI)
  • Partner with a company that innovates the way their customers automate

Smart choices deliver leaner processes in Packaging, Food and Beverage industry

In all industries, there is a need for more flexible and individualized production as well as increased transparency and documentable processes. Overall equipment efficiency, zero downtime and the demand for shorter production runs have created the need for smart machines and ultimately the smart factory. Now more than ever, this is important in the Packaging, Food and Beverage (PFB) industry to ensure that the products and processes are clean, safe and efficient.

Take a look at how the Smart Factory can be implemented in Packaging, Food, and Beverage industries.

Updating Controls Architecture

  • Eliminates analog wiring and reduces costs by 15% to 20%
  • Simplifies troubleshooting
  • Enables visibility down to the sensor/device
  • Simplifies retrofits
  • Reduces terminations
  • Eliminates manual configuration of devices and sensors

Automating Guided Format Change and Change Parts

  • Eliminates changeover errors
  • Reduces planned downtime to perform change over
  • Reduces product waste from start-up after a change over
  • Consistent positioning every time
  • Ensures proper change parts are swapped out

Predictive Maintenance through IO-Link

  • Enhances diagnostics
  • Reduces unplanned downtime
  • Provides condition monitoring
  • Provides more accurate data
  • Reduces equipment slows and stops
  • Reduces product waste

Traceability

  • Delivers accurate data and reduced errors
  • Tracks raw materials and finished goods
  • Date and lot code accuracy for potential product recall
  • Allows robust tags to be embedded in totes, pallets, containers, and fixtures
  • Increases security with access control

Why is all of this important?

Converting a manufacturing process to a smart process will improve many aspects and cure pains that may have been encountered in the past. In the PFB industry, downtime can be very costly due to raw material having a short expiration date before it must be discarded. Therefore, overall equipment efficiency (OEE) is an integral part of any process within PFB. Simply put, OEE is the percentage of manufacturing time that is truly productive. Implementing improved controls architecture, automating change over processes, using networking devices that feature predictive maintenance, and incorporating RFID technology for traceability greatly improve OEE and reduce time spent troubleshooting to find a solution to a reoccurring problem.

Through IO-Link technology and smart devices connected to IO-Link, time spent searching for the root of a problem is greatly reduced thanks to continuous diagnostics and predictive maintenance. IO-Link systems alert operators to sensor malfunctions and when preventative maintenance is required.

Unlike preventative maintenance, which only captures 18% of machine failures and is based on a schedule, predictive maintenance relies on data to provide operators and controls personnel critical information on times when they may need to do maintenance in the future. This results in planned downtime which can be strategically scheduled around production runs, as opposed to unplanned downtime that comes with no warning and could disrupt a production run.

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Reducing the time it takes to change over a machine to a different packaging size allows the process to finish the batch quicker than if a manual change over was used, which in turn means a shorter production blog 2.20 2run for that line. Automated change over allows the process to be exact every time and eliminates the risk of operator error due to more accurate positioning.

 

 

blog 2.20 3Traceability using RFID can be a very important part of the smart PFB factory. Utilizing RFID throughout the process —tracking of raw materials, finished goods, and totes leaving the facility — can greatly increase the efficiency and throughput of the process. RFID can even be applied to change part detection to identify if the correct equipment is being swapped in or out during change over.

Adding smart solutions to a PFB production line improves efficiency, increases output, minimizes downtime and saves money.

For more information on the Smart Factory check out this blog post: The Need for Data and System Interoperability in Smart Manufacturing For a deeper dive into format change check out this blog post: Flexibility Through Automated Format Changes on Packaging Machines

 

 

Traceability of production material with RFID

As we progress toward a more automated factory, the need to more efficiently manage what happens prior to the production process has become apparent. Tracking of raw material and production components from the dock door to the warehouse is quickly evolving from a best guess estimate to real-time inventory levels driven by production. Essentially, we are moving from a practice of holding just-in-case inventory to Just-in-Time (JIT) inventory. The JIT concept helps to optimize the amount of in-house inventory based on production. In addition, the entire supply chain benefits because the levels of raw goods inventory upstream can be managed more efficiently and forecasted with more accuracy.

RFID and barcode technology have played a critical role in the actual production process for decades, but its benefits are currently being leveraged in other areas of the plant as well. Whether its tracking every item or every pallet that comes into the receiving dock, ID traceability provides visibility where it did not exist before.

Traceability of production material 

Upon receiving a pallet with raw material, the 2D matrix code on the shipping label is read by a barcode scanner. The relevant data needed for the further traceability process is transferred onto the stack of trays which contain UHF carriers. The number of carriers is saved together with the traceability data in a database. This process takes place at one single station and the data is updated immediately to represent the inventory level.

Transmission of incoming goods data on the transponder

Automated review of loaded pallets

Based on the material number, the system contains a standard load for the number of trays on the pallet. An automatic screening takes place to determine if all transponders on the pallet are registered. In case of a difference between the registered data and the expected data, an error message pops up to indicate the need for manual intervention. This process allows for proactive management of inventory to prevent false inventory levels or goods that cannot be accounted for.

Key Features of a traceability solution:

  • Corresponds to the global ISO standard
  • Suitable for attachment to major control systems via bus interfaces and higher level IT systems
  • Variety of accessories available for easy integration into different applications

To learn more about RFID technology, visit www.balluff.com.

Five things to consider before selecting an RFID system

So, you have reached a point where you believe RFID is going to be the best solution. Now what? One of the most critical phases of a RFID project is deciding which product is going to address the application. While the planning stage can be highly conceptual, the hardware selection is truly a close-up inspection. This is where the rubber meets the road.

Here are the top five things, in no specific order, to consider after you have determined RFID is the appropriate technology for your application:

  1. Throughput

How much and how fast? How much data will be written to the tag and how much data will be read from the tag at each read point? Will the tag be moving during the read/write or will it stop in front of the antenna? Some RFID systems are capable of handling a large amount of data, while others are designed to read only small amounts of data. It is also important to consider if your data requirements will change in the near future.

  1. Read/Write Range

What is the required distance from the antenna to the tag? Will the tag be presented to the antenna at the same distance every time? Multiple frequency ranges can limit some systems to a few millimeters, while others are capable of communicating up to six or seven meters.

  1. Form factor

How much space do you have to mount both the reader and the tag? If space is limited, you can choose a system in which the antenna and the processor are combined in one housing. As for the tags, they can be as small as a grain of rice or as large as a license plate. The key is to make sure the equipment will not interfere with your process.

  1. Communication Protocol

How will the RFID processor “talk” to the control system? This is critical in a mixed control environment where multiple brands of PLCs or servers are present. What communication protocol do your controls engineers prefer — Ethernet/IP, Profinet, CC-Link, TCP/IP, etc?

  1. Environment

Where will the equipment actually be mounted? Does anything stand in the way of getting a clear read? Are there metal beams, tanks of liquid, or even operators walking in between the tag and antenna? This is probably the most critical of all the considerations because constant interference will block the antenna from reading or writing to the tag. While RFID technology has come a long way in recent years, metal and liquid can still affect the RF waves.

Keep these five things in mind and your RFID implementation will go a lot smoother!

To learn more about RFID solutions visit www.balluff.com.