You have options when it comes to connecting your sensors

When it comes to connecting I/O in factory automation settings, there are many options one can choose to build an efficient and cost-effective system. This is one area where you can reduce costs while also boosting productivity.

Single Ended Cables and Hardwired I/O

It is common in the industry for single ended cables to be run from sensors to a controller input card in a centralized control cabinet. And while this method works, it can be costly for a number of reasons, including:

  • Flying leads on single ended cables are time consuming to prepare and wire
  • Wiring mistakes are often made leading to more time troubleshooting
  • I/O Cards for PLCs are expensive
  • Long cable runs to a centralized location add up quickly especially when dealing with analog devices which require expensive shielded cables
  • Lack of scalability and diagnostics

Double Ended Cables and Networked I/O

Using double ended cables along with network I/O blocks allows for a cost-effective solution to distribute I/O and increase up time. There are numerous benefits that come along with this sort of architecture. Some of these benefits are:

  • Reduced cabling — since I/O is distributed, only network cables need to be run back to the control cabinet reducing cost and cabinet size, and sensor cables are shortened since I/O blocks are machine mounted
  • Quicker build time since standard wiring is less labor intensive
  • Diagnostics allows for quicker trouble shooting, leading to lower maintenance costs and reduced downtime

IO-Link

Using IO-Link delivers all of the strengths of networked I/O as well as additional benefits:

  • I/O Hubs allow for scalability
  • Smart devices can be incorporated into your system
  • Parameterization capability
  • Increased diagnostics from intelligent devices
  • Reduced costs and downtime
  • Increased productivity

Inductive Coupling for non-contact connection

Many people are using inductive coupling technology to provide a non-contact connection for their devices. This method allows you to pass both power and signal across an air gap making it ideal for replacing slip rings or multi-pin connectors in many applications. This provides some great options for industry to gain benefits in these areas such as:

  • Reduced wear since there is no physical connection
  • Faster change over
  • Reduced downtime due to the elimination of damaged connector pins

For more information on connectivity and I/O architecture solutions please visit www.balluff.com.

Diversity in factory automation

This blog was originally posted on the Innovating Automation Blog.

Biodiversity is beneficial not only in biological ecosystems, but in industrial factory automation as well. Diversity helps to limit the effects of unpredictable events.

Typically, in factory automation a control unit collects data from sensors, analyzes this data and, according to its programmed instruction, triggers actuators to a defined operation. In most cases, a single-channel structure consisting of sensor, logic and output perfectly fulfills the application requirements. Yet in some cases two-channel structures are preferred to increase the reliability of the control concept.

Clamping control at machine tool spindles

spindle-position-control

To monitor clamping positions of tools in machine tool spindles, several options are possible: Sensors with binary output (e.g. PNP normally open) or sensors with continuous output (e.g. 0..10V or IO-Link) may be installed. The clamping process in many spindles is controlled with hydraulic actuators. This means the clamping force can be controlled by using pressure sensors which control the applied hydraulic pressure in the clamping cylinder.

The combined usage of both position and pressure sensors controls the clamping status in a better manner than using only one sensor principle. Typically, there are three clamping situations: 1) unclamped 2) clamped without object 3) clamped with object. In tooling spindles, the clamped position is usually achieved by using springs which force the mechanics to hold and clamp the object when no pressure is applied. A pneumatic or hydraulic actuator allows the worker to unclamp the object by providing force to overcome the spring load. Without hydraulic or pneumatic pressure, the clamped position should be detected by the position sensor. When enough pressure is being built up, after a short delay, the unclamped position should be achieved. Otherwise something must be wrong.

The advantage of diversity

By using two different sensor principles (in this case pressure sensing and position sensing) the risk of so-called common cause failures is reduced. The probability of concurrent effects of environmental impact on the different sensors is diminished, thereby increasing the detection rate of failures. The machine control can immediately react if the signals of pressure and position sensors do not match, simplifying monitoring of the clamping process.

How TSN boosts efficiency by setting priorities for network bandwidth

As manufacturers move toward Industry 4.0 and the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), common communication platforms are needed to achieve the next level of efficiency boost. Using common communication platforms, like Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN), significantly reduces the burden of separate networks for IT and OT without compromising the separate requirements from both areas of the plant/enterprise.

TSN is the mother of all network protocols. It makes it possible to share the network bandwidth wisely by allocating rules of time sensitivity. For example, industrial motion control related communication, safety communication, general automation control communication (I/O), IT software communications, video surveillance communication, or Industrial vision system communication would need to be configured based on their time sensitivity priority so that the network of switches and communication gateways can effectively manage all the traffic without compromising service offerings.

If you are unfamiliar with TSN, you aren’t alone. Manufacturers are currently in the early adopter phase. User groups of all major industrial networking protocols such as ODVA (CIP and EtherNet/IP), PNO (for PROFINET and PROFISAFE), and CLPA (for CC-Link IE) are working toward incorporating TSN abilities in their respective network protocols. CC-Link IE Field has already released some of the products related to CC-Link IE Field TSN.

With TSN implementation, the current set of industrial protocols do not go away. If a machine uses today’s industrial protocols, it can continue to use that. TSN implementation has some gateway modules that would allow communicating the standard protocols while adding TSN to the facility.

While it would be optimal to have one universal protocol of communication across the plant floor, that is an unlikely scenario. Instead, we will continue to see TSN flavors of different protocols as each protocol has its own benefits of things it does the best. TSN allows for this co-existence of protocols on the same network.

 

Smart choices deliver leaner processes in Packaging, Food and Beverage industry

In all industries, there is a need for more flexible and individualized production as well as increased transparency and documentable processes. Overall equipment efficiency, zero downtime and the demand for shorter production runs have created the need for smart machines and ultimately the smart factory. Now more than ever, this is important in the Packaging, Food and Beverage (PFB) industry to ensure that the products and processes are clean, safe and efficient.

Take a look at how the Smart Factory can be implemented in Packaging, Food, and Beverage industries.

Updating Controls Architecture

  • Eliminates analog wiring and reduces costs by 15% to 20%
  • Simplifies troubleshooting
  • Enables visibility down to the sensor/device
  • Simplifies retrofits
  • Reduces terminations
  • Eliminates manual configuration of devices and sensors

Automating Guided Format Change and Change Parts

  • Eliminates changeover errors
  • Reduces planned downtime to perform change over
  • Reduces product waste from start-up after a change over
  • Consistent positioning every time
  • Ensures proper change parts are swapped out

Predictive Maintenance through IO-Link

  • Enhances diagnostics
  • Reduces unplanned downtime
  • Provides condition monitoring
  • Provides more accurate data
  • Reduces equipment slows and stops
  • Reduces product waste

Traceability

  • Delivers accurate data and reduced errors
  • Tracks raw materials and finished goods
  • Date and lot code accuracy for potential product recall
  • Allows robust tags to be embedded in totes, pallets, containers, and fixtures
  • Increases security with access control

Why is all of this important?

Converting a manufacturing process to a smart process will improve many aspects and cure pains that may have been encountered in the past. In the PFB industry, downtime can be very costly due to raw material having a short expiration date before it must be discarded. Therefore, overall equipment efficiency (OEE) is an integral part of any process within PFB. Simply put, OEE is the percentage of manufacturing time that is truly productive. Implementing improved controls architecture, automating change over processes, using networking devices that feature predictive maintenance, and incorporating RFID technology for traceability greatly improve OEE and reduce time spent troubleshooting to find a solution to a reoccurring problem.

Through IO-Link technology and smart devices connected to IO-Link, time spent searching for the root of a problem is greatly reduced thanks to continuous diagnostics and predictive maintenance. IO-Link systems alert operators to sensor malfunctions and when preventative maintenance is required.

Unlike preventative maintenance, which only captures 18% of machine failures and is based on a schedule, predictive maintenance relies on data to provide operators and controls personnel critical information on times when they may need to do maintenance in the future. This results in planned downtime which can be strategically scheduled around production runs, as opposed to unplanned downtime that comes with no warning and could disrupt a production run.

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Reducing the time it takes to change over a machine to a different packaging size allows the process to finish the batch quicker than if a manual change over was used, which in turn means a shorter production blog 2.20 2run for that line. Automated change over allows the process to be exact every time and eliminates the risk of operator error due to more accurate positioning.

 

 

blog 2.20 3Traceability using RFID can be a very important part of the smart PFB factory. Utilizing RFID throughout the process —tracking of raw materials, finished goods, and totes leaving the facility — can greatly increase the efficiency and throughput of the process. RFID can even be applied to change part detection to identify if the correct equipment is being swapped in or out during change over.

Adding smart solutions to a PFB production line improves efficiency, increases output, minimizes downtime and saves money.

For more information on the Smart Factory check out this blog post: The Need for Data and System Interoperability in Smart Manufacturing For a deeper dive into format change check out this blog post: Flexibility Through Automated Format Changes on Packaging Machines

 

 

IO-Link — Enables Industry 4.0 and Reduces Costs

Where does IO-Link fit on the road to Industry 4.0 and smart manufacturing?

IO-Link is a major enabling force for Industry 4.0 & smart manufacturing. Motivations for flexible manufacturing, efficient production and visibility require that we have more diagnostics and data available for analysis and monitoring. Lot-size-one flexible manufacturing requires that sensors and field devices be able to adapt to a rapidly changing set of requirements. With the parameterization feature of IO-Link slave devices, we can now send new parameters for production to the sensor on a part by part basis if required. For example, you could change a color sensor’s settings from red to green to orange to grey and back to red if necessary, allowing for significantly more flexible production. With efficient production, IO-Link slaves provide detailed diagnostics and condition monitoring information, allowing for trending of data, prediction of failure modes, and, thus, eliminating most downtime as we can act on the prediction data in a controlled & planned way. Trending of information like the current output of a power supply can give us new insights into changes in the machine over time or provide visibility into why a failure occurred.  For example, if a power supply reported a two amp jump in output three weeks ago, we can now ask, “what changed in our equipment 3 weeks ago that caused that?” This level of visibility can help management make better decisions about equipment health and production requirements.

Has IO-Link been widely accepted? Is anything still holding back its implementation?

In the last year IO-Link has become widely accepted. Major automation players like Balluff, Rockwell Automation, Festo, Siemens, SMC, Turck, Banner, Schmalz, Beckhoff, IFM and more than 100 other companies are engaged, promoting and, most importantly, building an installed base of functional IO-Link applications. We have seen installations in almost every industry segment: automotive OEMs, automotive tier suppliers, food & dairy machinery, primary packaging machinery, secondary packaging machinery, conveying systems, automated welding equipment, robot dress packs, on end-effectors of robots, automated assembly stations, palletized assembly lines, steel mills, wood mills, tire presses and more. The biggest roadblock to IO-Link becoming even further expanded in the market is typically a lack of skillset to support automation in the factory or a wariness of IO-Link as “another industrial network.”

What is the latest trend in IO-Link technology?

One of the biggest trends we are seeing with IO-Link technology is the reduction of analog on the machine.  With analog signals there are many “gotchas” that can ruin a good sensor application: electrical noise on the line, poor grounding design, more wiring, expensive analog input cards, and extra integration work. Analog signals cause a lot of extra math that we don’t need or want to do, for example: a linear position measurement sensor is 205mm long with a 4-20mA output tied into a 16bit input card. How many bits are there per mm?  A controls engineer needs to do a lot of mental gymnastics to integrate this into their machine. With IO-Link and a standard sensor cable, the wiring and grounding issues are typically eliminated and since IO-Link sensors report their measurements in the engineering units of the device, the mathematic gymnastics are also eliminated.  In our example, the 205mm long linear position sensor reports 205mm in the PLC, simple, faster to integrate and usually a much better overall application cost.

Collaborative Automation…It’s Not Just for Robots

Manufacturing is made up of hundreds of discrete operations. Some are repetitive, while others are more diverse. Repetitive tasks are ideal for automation while diverse tasks require more flexibility. And while automation can be extremely flexible, that comes with a high initial investment costs and significant deployment time. The alternative? People!

Humans have the unrivaled ability to adapt to a diverse and flexible manufacturing environment. They can be productive relatively quickly with proper guidance without high initial cost investments.

But as we all know, “to err is human” and this is one of the biggest issues with manual operations. People need a little guidance from time to time. Collaboration is not just for robots; It’s for complete automation systems as well.

Collaborative automation is most important at the point-of-use, where humans are performing critical operations. Some of those common operations include:

  • Manual assembly for low volume or highly flexible operations
  • Delivery of raw materials to the point-of-use
  • Kit assembly for down-stream operation
  • Machine setup and change-over
  • Machine maintenance and calibration

All of these functions can be done error-free and with little training by simply guiding people within their current work envelope, also referred to as their point-of-use. This type of a lean function provides hands-free guidance in the form of indication devices connected directly to your automation system allowing workers to stay focused on the task at hand instead of looking elsewhere for instructions.

With the technology of IO-Link, smart indication devices can now show much more information to all the people involved in specific manufacturing tasks. Automation has an immediate and direct connection to the people that are so vital.

For example, in a manually-fed weld-cell, the smart indicators are capable of not only signaling that the part is loaded correctly, but also whether the part is out of alignment (shown here by the red indicator) or that something wrong with one of the automation components such as a stuck pneumatic clamp.

Figure 1
A manually-fed weld-cell with smart indicators is capable of not only signaling that the part is loaded correctly, but also if the part is out of alignment (shown by the red indicator) or that there is something wrong with one of the automation components such as a stuck pneumatic clamp.

Even better, with IIoT technology, trends can be analyzed to determine if the fixture/tool could be optimized for production or to identify common failure points. This all leads to tighter collaboration with operations, maintenance personnel and production supervisors.

A traditional kitting station, sometimes referred to as a supermarket, is another ideal application for smart indicators. Not only can they guide a single operator to the intended part to pull, they can guide multiple operators at the same time.  Also, smart indicators can inform of incorrect pulls, potential bin options (a physically closure bin), directional information, and inventory levels. And again, with IIoT technology, trends can be analyzed to determine proper layout, individual personnel performance and system throughput. The automation system collaborates with operations, forklift drivers and production supervisors.

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A traditional kitting station, sometimes referred to as a supermarket, with smart indicators to guide operators to the intended part to pull.

So, take a look and see what a collaborative automation system utilizing smart indicators can do for your manual operations. You might be surprised.

The Need for Data and System Interoperability in Smart Manufacturing

As technology advances at a faster pace and the world becomes flatter, manufacturing operations are generally focused on efficient production to maximize profitability for the organization. In the new era of industrial automation and smart manufacturing, organizations are turning to data generated on their plant floors to make sound decisions about production and process improvements.

Smart manufacturing improvements can be divided roughly into six different segments: Predictive Analytics, Track and Trace, Error Proofing, Predictive Maintenance, Ease of Troubleshooting, and Remote Monitoring.IOLink-SmartManufacturing_blog-01To implement any or all of these improvements requires interoperable systems that can communicate effectively and sensors and devices with the ability to provide the data required to achieve the manufacturer’s goals. For example, if the goal is to have error free change-overs between production cycles, then feedback systems that include identification of change parts, measurements for machine alignment changes, or even point of use indication for operators may be required.  Similarly, to implement predictive maintenance, systems require devices that provide alerts or information about their health or overall system health.

Traditional control system integration methods that rely heavily on discrete or analog (or both) modes of communication are limited to specific operations. For example, a 4-20mA measurement device would only communicate a signal between 4-20mA. When it goes beyond those limits there is a failure in communication, in the device or in the system. Identifying that failure requires manual intervention for debugging the problem and wastes precious time on the manufacturing floor.

The question then becomes, why not utilize only sensors and devices with networking ability such as a fieldbus node? This could solve the data and interoperability problems, but it isn’t an ideal solution:

  • Most fieldbuses do not integrate power and hence require devices to have separate power drops making the devices bulkier.
  • Multiple fieldbuses in the plant on different machines requires the devices to support multiple fieldbus/network protocols. This can be cost prohibitive, otherwise the manufacturer will need to stock all varieties of the same sensor.
  • Several of the commonly used fieldbuses have limitations on the number nodes you can add — in general 256 nodes is capacity for a subnet. Additional nodes requires new expensive switches and other hardware.

IOLink-SmartManufacturing_blog-02IO-Link provides one standard device level communication that is smart in nature and network independent, thus it enables interoperability throughout the controls pyramid making it the most suitable choice for smart manufacturing.

We will go over more specific details on why IO-Link is the best suited technology for smart manufacturing in next week’s blog.

 

Connecting Fluid Power to the Industrial IoT and Industry 4.0

The next industrial revolution has already begun. To remain a viable business, it’s time to invest in IIoT and Industry 4.0 applications, regardless of whether you are a “mechanical-only” company or not.Industry 4.0 & Industrial IoT

Industrial Internet of Things

IIoT is simply about connecting devices on the plant floor to a network. These connections provide new ways to generate and collect useful data. This network can provide visibility down into the machine, enabling predictive maintenance and big data analytics. With IIoT, we are able to improve overall equipment effectiveness and provide new insights into our business.

Industry 4.0

On a grander scale, Industry 4.0 is a blend of digitalization, new technology and practical decisions to improve manufacturing. Industry 4.0 aims to achieve unprecedented flexibility, efficient production and visibility at every level of production. Industry 4.0 has impact throughout our processes and across the supply chain. Its philosophy blends lean initiatives, automation, technology, materials, downtime reduction upgrades, and investments in overall equipment effectiveness. This philosophy keeps the current generation of manufacturers competitive in a global market. While the German government set this precedent for Industry 4.0, the entire manufacturing world must now take on this challenge.

Implementing IIoT and Industry 4.0

Standard systems like hydraulic power units (HPUs) are receiving a major boost by becoming IIoT-ready. Traditional on/off flow or pressure switches are upgrading to provide information beyond the simple switch points. In addition, analog devices like temperature, pressure, flow, and level transducers can become IIoT-ready through open standard technologies like IO-Link. These technologies add additional value by incorporating easy-to-report parameters, diagnostics, events and warnings. A standard HPU can become a smart power unit with minimal modification.

The value of IIoT increases with predictive maintenance, remote monitoring and ease of troubleshooting. Imagine not having to climb down into the oil-drenched pit of a stamping press to trouble shoot an issue. With IIoT-ready technologies, we can connect to the devices and know exactly what needs fixing. In addition, we can possibly predict the failure before it occurs. This can dramatically reduce machine downtime as well as the time spent in hazardous locations.

Selecting IIoT-ready technologies is only one step of the program to fully leverage the value of Industry 4.0. We must also analyze processes and determine how to implement flexibility into production. After that, we must then discuss where automation technology makes sense to support lean processes. Manufacturers can see into every aspect of their production while manufacturing hundreds of variations of product in the same line, all while assuring quality standards with virtually zero machine downtime.

The difference between Industry 4.0 and IIoT

Industry 4.0 is a cultural philosophy about how we can use increased visibility, flexibility and efficiency to be more competitive. IIoT’s connectivity is an enabling force for Industry 4.0. IIoT connects our devices, our data, our machines and our people to the advantage of our company and customers.  By embracing both, it is easier to achieve positive results and sustain global competitiveness.

Article originally posted on Hydraulics & Pneumatics.

Everything You Need to Know to be Successful at IIoT

Do you need to quickly ramp up your IIoT knowledge? Do you want to know why manufacturers are investing in IIoT? For years this blog has shared many of the individual values that smart manufacturing, Industry 4.0 and the Industrial Internet of Things can bring to manufacturers. I am going to quickly summarize the key findings and provide links to the full entries so you can easily have at your fingertips all of the advice you need to be successful at IIoT.

  • Industry 4.0 & IIoT, who cares?!?! You should. Even in 2016, IIoT investments were rapidly growing and more than a fifth of technology budgets were being invested in data analytics, IIoT and Industry 4.0. This has not slowed down in 2018!
  • 5 Common IIoT Mistakes and How to Avoid Them. The first point is the best point, every IIoT project that ignores the IT department is doomed for failure. IT & OT must work closely together for a successful data project in the factory.
  • Capture vs Control – The Hidden Value of True IIoT Solutions. In automation, everything seems to revolve around the PLC. This is very much an Industry 3.0 way of thinking. As we take on the next industrial revolution, devices can talk to each other in new and incredible ways, and we can capture data without impacting a working production line or modifying PLC code.
  • JSON Objects and How They Can Streamline an IIoT Application. How the data is captured is important to understand when you are ready to take action and implement your first project. By utilizing web tools like JSON, we can effectively capture data for IIoT applications.
  • What does that “Ready for IIoT” tag really mean? But how do I select a device that is going to be actually ready for IIoT? Features like condition monitoring, automatic configuration and scalability make for robust IIoT projects that can stand the test of time.

When you are convinced and ready to take action on an IIoT project kickoff for an Industry 4.0 team, take a look at the blogs below which can help you make an action plan for success and get buy-in from management.

  • How to Balance the IIoT Success Equation. What should you and your team be focusing on? How do we set a strategy, manage data, and take action to run a successful project? All of these need to be in balance and planned for to have long term vitality in your IIoT investments.
  • How do I justify an IIoT investment to my boss? We can show ROI through reduced downtime, by tying our project to corporate goals of productivity or utilization and you can point out that your competitors are heavily investing in this topic.
  • Enabling the Visibility Provided by the Industrial Internet of Things. And last but not least, there is a seriously strong technology available on the market from virtually every automation vendor that enables and scales IIoT like no other. That technology is IO-Link. With IO-Link you can create visibility down to every sensor in the plant and gain the flexibility and reliability that you need for sustainable competitiveness in the global market.

To learn more about IO-Link and how it enables machine builders and manufacturers to be successful with IIoT, check out this interactive infographic.

Back to the Basics: IO-Link

In the last post about the Basics of Automation, we learned how distances, travel, angles and pressures can be measured contactlessly, whether linear or rotary. In this blog, let’s take a closer look at IO-Link technology.

Throughout the history of manufacturing, as the level of automation increased, the demand for intelligent field devices grew. A variety of interfaces with different mechanical and electrical characteristics were created, and the need for standardization grew. The cooperative work of several companies developed the viable solution. Like  USB in the PC world, IO-Link in automation leads to a considerable simplification of installation with simultaneously extended diagnostics and parameterization capability.

IO-Link 1

It’s a worldwide standardized I/O technology according to IEC 61131-9, in order to communicate from the control to the lowest level of automation. The universal interface is a fieldbus independent point-to-point connection that works with an unshielded industrial cable. The IO-Link Community founded in 2006, consisting of leading automation manufacturers, promotes IO-Link with the acronym “”USE””:

  • Universal – IO-Link is an international standard (IEC 61131-9)
  • Smart – IO-Link enables diagnostics and parameter-setting of devices
  • Easy – IO-Link provides great simplification and cost reduction

System Components

IO-Link master
Also mentioned as the heart of the IO-Link installation, it communicates with the controller via the respective fieldbus as well as downward using IO-Link to the sensor/actuator level.

Sensors and Actuators
The IO-Link capable intelligent sensors and actuators are connected directly to the IO-Link master via IO-Link. This enables the simplest installation, the best signal quality, parameterization and diagnostics.

Hubs
The sensor/actuator hub exchanges signals with the binary and/or analog sensors and actuators and communicates with the IO-Link master.

IO-Link 2

To learn more about the Basics of Automation, visit www.balluff.com.