RFID Basics – Gain Key Knowledge to Select the Best Fit System

As digitalization evolves, industrial companies are automating more and more manual processes. Consequently, they transfer paper-based tasks in the field of identification  to digital solutions. One important enabling technology is radio frequency identification (RFID), which uses radio frequency to exchange data between two different entities for the purpose of identification. Since this technology is mature, many companies now trust it to improve their efficiency. Strong arguments for RFID technology include its contactless reading, which makes it wear-free. Plus, it’s maintenance-free and insensitive to dirt.

RFID basics for selecting the best fit system

There are myriad applications for RFID in the manufacturing process, which can be clustered into the following areas:

    • Asset management e.g. tool identification on machine tools or mold management on injection molding machines in plastic processing companies
    • Traceability for work piece tracking in production
    • Access control for safety and security purposes by instructed and authorized experts to ensure that only the right people can access the machine and change parameters, etc.

But not all RFID is the same. It is important to select the system type and components that are best suited for your application.

Frequencies and their best applications

RFID runs on three different frequency bands, each of which has its advantages and disadvantages.

Low Frequency (LF)
LF systems are in the range of 30…300 kHz and are best suited for close range and for difficult conditions, such as metallic surroundings. Therefore, they fit perfectly in tool identification applications, such as in machine tools, Additionally, they are used in livestock and other animal tracking. The semiconductor industry (front end) relies on this frequency (134kHz) as well.

High Frequency (HF)
HF in the range of 3…30 MHz is ideal for parts tracking at close range up to 400 mm. With HF you can process and store larger quantities of data, which is helpful for tracking and tracing workpieces in industrial applications. But companies also use it for production control. It comes along with high data transmission speeds. Accordingly, it accelerates identification processes.

Ultra High Frequency (UHF)
UHF systems in the range of  300 MHz…3 GHz are widely used in intralogistics applications and typically communicate at a range of up to 6 m distance. Importantly, they allow bulk reading of tags.

RFID key components

Every RFID system consists of three components.

    1. RFID tag (data carrier). The data carrier stores all kinds of information. It can be read and/or changed (write) by computers or automation systems. Read/write versions are available in various memory capacities and with various storage mechanisms. RFID tags are usually classified based on their modes of power supply, including:

– Passive data carriers: without power supply
– Active data carriers: with power supply

2. Antenna or Read/Write head. The antenna supplies the RFID tag with power and reads the data. If desired, it can also write new data on it.

3. Processing unit. The processing unit is used for signal processing and preparation. It typically includes an integrated interface for connecting to the controller or the PC system.

RFID systems are designed for some of the toughest environments and address just most identification applications in the plants. To learn more about industrial RFID applications and components visit www.balluff.us/rifd.

Christian Holder has experience and knowledge of the industrial automation industry with Balluff. With his product and industry knowledge, he is sharing his passion for automation with Automation Insights.

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