Welcome to the first in a series of getting back to the basic blogs about photoelectric sensors.
All photoelectric sensors require a light source to operate. The light source is integral to the sensor and is referred to as the emitter. Some light sources can be seen and may be of different colors or wavelengths for instance red, blue, green, white light or laser or one you cannot see, infrared. Many years ago photoelectric sensors used incandescent lights which were easily damaged by vibration and shock. The sensors that used incandescence were susceptible to ambient light which limited the sensing range and how they were installed.
Today light sources use light emitting diodes (LED’s). LED’s cannot generate the light that the incandescent bulbs could. However since the LED is solid state, it will last for years, is not easily damaged, is sealed, smaller than the incandescent light and can survive a wide temperature range. LED’s are available in three basic versions visible, laser and infrared with each having their advantages.
Visible LED’s which are typically red, aid in the alignment and set up of the sensor since it will provide a visible beam or spot on the target. Visible red LED’s can be bright and should be aimed so that the light will not shine in an operator’s eyes. The other color visible LED’s are used for specific applications such as contrast, luminescence, and color sensors as well as sensor function indication.
Laser LED’s will provide a consistent light color or wavelength, small beam diameter and longer range however these are generally more costly. Lasers are often used for small part detection and precision measuring. Although the light beam is small and concentrated, it can be easily interrupted by airborne particles. If there is dust or mist in the environment the light will be scattered making the application less successful than desired. When a laser is being used for measuring make sure the light beam is larger than any holes or crevasses in the part to ensure the measurement is as accurate as possible. Also it is important to ensure that the laser is installed so that it is not aimed into an operator or passerby’s eyes.
Lastly, the infrared LED will produce an invisible, to the human eye, light while being more efficient and generating the most light with the least amount of heat. Infrared light sources are perfect for harsh and contaminated environments where there is oil or dust. However, with the good comes the bad. Since the light source is infrared and not visible setup and alignment can be challenging.
LED’s have proved to be robust and reliable in photoelectric sensors. In the next installment we will review LED modulation.
You can learn more about photoelectric sensors on our website at www.balluff.us